A report provided the findings of a research project that examined the transitions of young people into work, what they needed to be ready for work, and what made a difference to their work readiness. It said that discussions about work readiness often referred to a list of 'employability skills' that were essentially outcomes, or second-order factors (such as leadership, teamwork, problem solving, and communication), but young people and their supporters were not clear on how they acquired those capabilities and stakeholders lacked a 'common language' to describe the necessary attributes. The report suggested a group of six 'vital' capabilities that were needed in order to be ready for work (being self aware, being receptive to advice and ideas, drive, being self-assured, resilience, and being informed regarding the job market), and made a range of recommendations.
Source: Ready for Work: The capabilities young people need to find and keep work – and the programmes proven to help develop these, Impetus – The Private Equity Foundation
A report examined the impact on students and higher education institutions of the European Community Action Scheme for the Mobility of University Students (ERASMUS) exchange programme. It concluded that students who studied or trained abroad were more likely to improve their employment prospects, and were around half as likely to experience long-term unemployment as their graduate peers.
Source: Effects of Mobility on the Skills and Employability of Students and the Internationalisation of Higher Education Institutions, European Union
A report evaluated the Your first EURES job scheme, a mobility scheme implemented by the European Commission between 2011 and 2013 to help young Europeans between ages 18 and 30 to find a job, traineeship, or apprenticeship in other European Union countries. The evaluation examined the results achieved over the first two years of the scheme and considered the main challenges to be addressed in the future. The report made a range of recommendations, including calling on the Commission to: continue managing the scheme at European Union level; embed the scheme within the EURES services; ensure a balance of project types and geographical coverage; and extend the duration of projects and strengthen public-private partnership networks.
Source: Ecorys, Evaluation of the Your first EURES job Preparatory Action: Final report, European Commission
A report provided an overview of the existing state of the labour market for young people, and outlined statistics on United Kingdom youth unemployment, with international comparisons.
Source: Precarious Futures? Youth employment in an international context, UK Commission for Employment and Skills
A report said that there was a renewed confidence among United Kingdom businesses, but concern about a lack of skills to meet future demands, and about the consequential short to medium term implications for businesses and the economy. The report discussed the need to train young workers to meet the gaps and, in particular, to provide vocational training for unemployed young people.
Source: The Skills Crunch: Upskilling the workforce of the future, Prince's Trust
A think-tank report examined trends in youth unemployment in the United Kingdom, recent policy measures, and lessons learned from policy in Europe. It argued that, for many young people in the United Kingdom who did not go to university, the transition from education to employment was 'ill-defined, poor quality and ineffective'. The report said that economic recovery alone would not solve the structural youth unemployment problem in the UK. It called for policy changes to address the number of young people who were not in education, employment, or training and made a range of recommendations, including for better careers guidance, and the reform of apprenticeships.
Source: Tony Dolphin, Remember the Young Ones: Improving career opportunities for Britain's young people, Institute for Public Policy Research
A new book examined the lives of young people in the north of England classified as NEET (not in education, employment, or training), or at risk of becoming NEET, and their experiences on the margins of education and employment. The book considered the implications for practitioners and policymakers, evaluated existing policy initiatives, and outlined strategies at local and national government level to improve the lives of NEET young people.
Source: Robin Simmons, Ron Thompson, and Lisa Russell, Education, Work and Social Change: Young people and marginalization in post-industrial Britain, Palgrave Macmillan
A report examined the labour market situation of young people in Europe, including their school-to-work transition, the more general transition to adulthood, and the lives of those who remained in employment during the economic crisis. It also examined the policy measures implemented by selected member states (including the United Kingdom) in support of school-to-work transitions.
Source: Massimiliano Mascherini, Anna Ludwinek, Carlos Vacas, Anja Meierkord, and Michael Gebel, Mapping Youth Transitions in Europe, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions
The Scottish Government published the final report from the Commission for Developing Scotland's Young Workforce. The report focused on the enhancement of the status of vocational education, and on the engagement of business and industry with schools and colleges. It made a wide range of recommendations for schools, colleges, and employers, including for encouraging and supporting employers to recruit more young people, and for addressing equalities issues across gender, Black and minority-ethnic groups, disabilities, and for care leavers.
Source: Education Working For All! Commission for Developing Scotland's Young Workforce Final Report, Scottish Government
A report examined the causes of London's high youth unemployment rate. It examined which groups of young people found it most difficult to find work; the variation in outcomes for school-leavers and young people from ethnic minorities; the geography of youth unemployment in London; and the impact of wider labour market dynamics. The report made recommendations.
Source: Ceri Hughes and Lizzie Crowley, London: A tale of two cities – addressing the youth employment challenge, Work Foundation
An article examined the extent to which cyclical, structural, and institutional factors explained cross-national variation in youth labour market integration in Europe. It said that economic globalization had a positive effect on youth labour market integration. Young people also experienced fewer difficulties with labour market integration where the educational system was more vocationally specific. Where employment protection legislation of incumbent workers was stricter, young people experienced more difficulties with labour market integration, especially those who were higher-educated.
Source: Marloes de Lange, Maurice Gesthuizen, and Maarten Wolbers, 'Youth labour market integration across Europe: the impact of cyclical, structural, and institutional characteristics', European Societies, Volume 16 Issue 2
A report examined the geography of youth employment prospects across the United Kingdom, and considered the case for tailored local approaches, and the role of local partners in addressing youth unemployment. It said that there was a distinctive geographic pattern, with unemployment in the highest areas (such as Middlesbrough, Barnsley, and Glasgow) more than twice that of the lowest (Southampton, York, and Reading). The report made policy recommendations.
Source: Lizzie Crowley and Nye Cominetti, The Geography of Youth Unemployment: A route map for change, Work Foundation
An article examined the progress of research into education-work transitions in Europe. It said that the research had made 'significant if uneven' progress towards explaining national differences in transitions. Its achievements appeared more significant when viewed from a perspective that emphasized the case-oriented rather than variables-oriented aims of comparative research.
Source: David Raffe, 'Explaining national differences in education-work transitions: twenty years of research on transition systems', European Societies, Volume 16 Issue 2