An article examined the relationship between social capital and labour market integration of new refugees. It said that length of residency and language competency broadened social networks and, while contacts with religious and co-national groups brought help with employment and housing, the mere possession of networks was not enough to enhance access to employment and the absence of social networks did appear to have a detrimental effect on access to work. The type of social capital appeared to have no significant impact on the permanency or quality of employment, rather, language competency, pre-migration qualifications, and occupations, and time in the United Kingdom were most important in accessing work.
Source: Sin Yi Cheung and Jenny Phillimore, 'Refugees, social capital, and labour market integration in the UK', Sociology, Volume 48 Issue 3
A report examined poverty among different minority-ethnic groups in Northern Ireland, following a period of high levels of inward migration. It said that people from minority-ethnic groups were at particular risk of in-work poverty and, while there was a lack of local level data, the available data indicated that there were high levels of labour market segregation among minority-ethnic groups, and the worst outcomes relating to economic activity, labour market participation, education, and health were found among the Irish Traveller community. The report said that English language skills were perceived as important for success in the labour market, and there was a perception among people from minority-ethnic backgrounds that 'ethnic markers', unfamiliarity with formal recruitment practices, and a lack of networks, restricted their access to the labour market. The report noted that a lack of data had inhibited assessment of the use or impact of government support.
Source: Jenny Irwin, Ruth McAreavey, and Niall Murphy, The Economic and Social Mobility of Ethnic Minority Communities in Northern Ireland, Joseph Rowntree Foundation
A study examined the influence of location on employment for minority-ethnic groups, based on case studies in three areas (Leicester and, depending on the group, Glasgow or Luton) and three ethnic groups (African Caribbean, Indian, and Pakistani). The report said that racism in education and employment varied by locality, contributing to differences in outcome by place, and that these differences were also affected by segregation and migration. It said that there was some evidence that the relative size of minority-ethnic groups in a locality might affect employment outcomes, with local policies likely to serve the largest minority-ethnic group, but the needs of some smaller minority-ethnic groups were being overlooked by local authorities. The report called on providers of educational, careers, and employment services to reduce variations in access to services and to monitor outcomes, and pointed to a need for specialist and mainstream services to address better the specific needs of local communities.
Source: Mumtaz Lalani, Hilary Metcalf, Leila Tufekci, Andrew Corley, Heather Rolfe, and Anitha George, How Place Influences Employment Outcomes for Ethnic Minorities, Joseph Rowntree Foundation
A paper examined whether racial prejudice and labour market discrimination was counter-cyclical, drawing on data from the British Social Attitudes survey. The paper concluded that the results implied that recessions exacerbated existing racial inequalities.
Source: David Johnston and Grace Lordan, When Work Disappears: Racial Prejudice and Recession Labour Market Penalties, Discussion Paper No 1257, Centre for Economic Performance
An article examined the generational progress of ethnic minorities by analyzing four labour market outcomes: economic inactivity, unemployment, access to salaried jobs, and self-employment. It looked at the impact of a range of cultural and social resources on employment outcomes, namely language fluency, co-ethnic spouse, co-ethnic employer, and bridging and bonding social capital. Clear advantages of language proficiency were found in obtaining employment and salaried jobs. However, the second generation showed little advancement in all the outcomes examined. A particularly strong religious penalty was found among Muslim women. The persistent ethno-religious penalty experienced by the second generation posed a serious policy challenge.
Source: Sin Yi Cheung, 'Ethno-religious minorities and labour market integration: generational advancement or decline?', Ethnic and Racial Studies, Volume 37 Number 1