An article examined how work, marital, and fertility history affected the likelihood of women extending their employment beyond the state pension age. Women were extending paid work for financial reasons to make up for 'opportunity costs' as a result of their caring role within the family, with short breaks due to caring, lengthy marriages, divorcing, and remaining single with children all being important. On the other hand, lengthy detachment (due to caring) from the labour market made extending working life more difficult.
Source: Naomi Finch, 'Why are women more likely than men to extend paid work? The impact of work-family life history', European Journal of Ageing, Volume 11 Number 1
An article examined the relationship between age and training in 15 European Union countries. Older people were less likely to participate in both training in general and work-related training.
Source: Fiona Carmichael and Marco Ercolani, 'Age-training gaps in the European Union', Ageing and Society, Volume 34 Issue 1
A report examined critical issues related to an ageing workforce in Northern Ireland, outlining the barriers faced by those wanting to continue working into older age, and their support, training, and policy needs. The report made recommendations for policy makers and employers.
Source: Ben Franklin, Working Longer in Northern Ireland: Valuing an ageing workforce, International Longevity Centre – UK
A survey for a trade union examined the workplace experiences of women aged over 50. The report said that over 60 per cent of women in this age group worked full-time, with a further 20 per cent working 25-34 hours per week and over half of women aged between 60 and 64 in full-time work. It said that 33 per cent of respondents would increase their hours if they could, but 40 per cent of those working full-time would like to reduce their hours. Most women did not feel that they had good promotion opportunities, and fewer than 50 per cent had said they had good opportunities for training. The report noted policy issues for the union to consider further.
Source: Women Deserve Better: A better deal for women aged 50 and over in employment, Labour Research Department/UNISON
A report examined the experiences in the workplace of women aged over 50. It said that workplace culture made it difficult for older women to balance their careers with caring responsibilities, which contributed to low pay at the end of their working lives and poverty in retirement. The report said that: the gender pay gap for women over 50 working full-time was twice as high as for younger women; almost half of women over 50 worked part-time; and the majority worked in the public sector, where they felt at risk from budget cuts. The report called for new employment rights, including carers' leave, and for a more enlightened and flexible response from employers.
Source: Age Immaterial: Women over 50 in the workplace, Trades Union Congress
An article examined the extent to which becoming a grandparent affected early retirement in European countries. Becoming a grandparent was found to speed up retirement, especially at around the ages of 55 and 60. However, the effect was statistically significant only for women, not for men.
Source: Jan Van Bavel and Tom De Winter, 'Becoming a grandparent and early retirement in Europe', European Sociological Review, Volume 29 Number 6