A report examined the experiences in the workplace of women aged over 50. It said that workplace culture made it difficult for older women to balance their careers with caring responsibilities, which contributed to low pay at the end of their working lives and poverty in retirement. The report said that: the gender pay gap for women over 50 working full-time was twice as high as for younger women; almost half of women over 50 worked part-time; and the majority worked in the public sector, where they felt at risk from budget cuts. The report called for new employment rights, including carers' leave, and for a more enlightened and flexible response from employers.
Source: Age Immaterial: Women over 50 in the workplace, Trades Union Congress
An article examined the extent to which becoming a grandparent affected early retirement in European countries. Becoming a grandparent was found to speed up retirement, especially at around the ages of 55 and 60. However, the effect was statistically significant only for women, not for men.
Source: Jan Van Bavel and Tom De Winter, 'Becoming a grandparent and early retirement in Europe', European Sociological Review, Volume 29 Number 6