A new book examined the effectiveness of past area-based initiatives in education, discussed recent developments in this field, and considered innovative ways forward for the future.
Source: Kirstin Kerr, Alan Dyson, and Carlo Raffo, Education, Disadvantage and Place: Making the local matter, Policy Press
A think-tank report said that many social housing estates in Britain had experienced decades of neglect and had entrenched and generational social problems (including 'endemic' domestic violence). Drawing on case studies of good practice, the report said that such estates would benefit from locally-based intervention involving local people, based on good local intelligence, and supported by inter-agency collaborative working. It said that existing resources should be better deployed, that encouraging the reporting of crime was crucial, and that women needed to be supported through the provision of, and support for, male perpetrator programmes, sex and relationships education, and interventions to empower women in deprived areas through education, employment, and parenting support. The report made a range of recommendations, including: for an 'Estates Recovery Board', to complement the Troubled Families team, pooling funding from relevant government departments; and for the police and crime commissioners to establish multi-agency 'Estate Recovery Teams' to devise estate recovery plans.
Source: Gavin Knight, The Estate We're In: Lessons from the front line, Policy Exchange
Four reports provided the findings from an evidence review looking at the impact of regeneration on poverty in the United Kingdom. The work had looked at: how area regeneration and poverty were linked; the effectiveness of interventions; recommendations for future anti-poverty strategies; and priorities for improving the evidence base on the capacity of area-based programmes to tackle poverty. Key findings outlined in the main report included: that regeneration had been more effective in tackling 'non-material' forms of poverty than 'material' forms; that place-based interventions (housing, crime, and the physical environment) contributed more to improving the non-material dimensions of poverty than people-based interventions (health, education, and community participation); and that jobs created were not always 'additional' and were often taken up by individuals living outside of target areas. The report raised concerns about the United Kingdom coalition government's 'localist' approach to regeneration, and made recommendations. Further reports covered evidence from Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.
Source: Richard Crisp, Tony Gore, Sarah Pearson, and Peter Tyler, with David Clapham, Jenny Muir, and Douglas Robertson, Regeneration and Poverty: Evidence and policy review – final report, Centre for Regional, Economic and Social Research (Sheffield Hallam University)
Source: Jenny Muir, Regeneration and Poverty in Northern Ireland: Evidence and policy review, Centre for Regional, Economic and Social Research (Sheffield Hallam University)
Source: Douglas Robertson, Regeneration and Poverty in Scotland: Evidence and policy review, Centre for Regional, Economic and Social Research (Sheffield Hallam University)
Source: David Clapham, Regeneration and Poverty in Wales: Evidence and policy review, Centre for Regional, Economic and Social Research (Sheffield Hallam University)
A report examined the concept of ultra-micro economics and its use in the regeneration of disadvantaged economies, drawing on national and international examples of ultra-micro approaches.
Source: David Boyle, Ultra-Micro Economics: Small plus small plus small equals big, Co-operatives UK
A study examined neighbourhood improvements in Calton, Glasgow, the process by which these came about, and the impact on local communities and organizations. The study focused on work undertaken in the Calton area since 2010 through the 'Equally Well' approach to tackling health inequalities – particularly the street audit undertaken in 2010. Street audit involved a small group of up to ten local residents and businesses, and up to 15 other stakeholders, assessing their area on foot, exploring the routes, connectivity, and identity within the area and how these could be improved. The report examined perceptions of physical change, people's involvement, impact of the change, and the lessons learned.
Source: ODS Consulting, Assessing the Health Impacts of Neighbourhood Improvements in Calton: Final report, Glasgow Centre for Population Health
A new book examined the concept of an Olympic 'legacy', focusing specifically on housing in London following the 2012 Olympic games. It argued there would be a range of both intended and unintended legacy outcomes and that there was an urgent need to revise strategies in order to achieve the originally intended impact. Taking a sociological approach, the book also examined issues relating to social class, gentrification, social polarization, and the extent to which social inclusion was reflected in housing legacies.
Source: Penny Bernstock, Olympic Housing: A critical review of London 2012's legacy, Ashgate Publications
An article examined the objectives and outcomes from the St Paul's regeneration scheme in Cheltenham, a town in central England. The article said that the case study indicated it was possible to improve the social and environmental aspects of a high crime area through the involvement of residents in the redesign process, and with the employment of innovative design.
Source: Amanda Taylor, 'A case study of the regeneration of the St Paul's estate, Cheltenham: working in partnership and engaging with the community to deliver improvements in a deprived area', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, Volume 7 Number 3
An article examined how values of equity and justice might change planning practitioners' voices in the debate over urban outcomes. Drawing on Nussbaum's capabilities approach, and case study research from an area-based regeneration initiative in England, it discussed how changing planners' views of their aims might produce more socially just outcomes.
Source: Katie McClymont, 'Stuck in the process, facilitating nothing? Justice, capabilities and planning for value-led outcomes', Planning Practice and Research, Volume 29 Issue 2
A report by a committee of MSPs said that regeneration should not be seen as 'strategy' or 'policy': but as a vision to reduce deprivation, inequality and long-term decline, delivered through a focused, strategic, cross-policy approach. Recommendations included: better partnerships and joined up working; a focus on prevention and reducing long-term inequalities; community led regeneration and community participation; and longer term funding to provide greater stability to projects.
Source: Delivery of Regeneration in Scotland, 1st Report 2014, SP Paper 476, Scottish Parliament Local Government and Regeneration Committee Committee
The government responded to a report by a committee of peers on the Olympic and Paralympic legacy in London.
Source: Government and Mayor of London Response to the House of Lords Select Committee on Olympic and Paralympic Legacy Report of Session 2013-14: 'Keeping The Flame Alive: The Olympic and Paralympic legacy', Cm 8814, Department for Culture, Media and Sport, TSO
An article examined whose purpose the policy goal of community empowerment served. It examined the perspectives of three 'actors' in a neighbourhood regeneration setting: the housing association; a campaign group that became a registered tenants organization; and residents living in the area. The article said that while the 'wider community' was not empowered by the processes, community empowerment was used by other parties to legitimate their aims. It noted implications for policy oversight and regulation.
Source: Louise Lawson and Ade Kearns, 'Rethinking the purpose of community empowerment in neighbourhood regeneration: the need for policy clarity', Local Economy, Volume 29 Number 1-2
An article examined the ongoing potential for neighbourhood regeneration in a period of austerity. It examined two emerging forms of neighbourhood governance, in two urban local authorities, and compared them with findings from earlier research in the case study sites. It said that the emerging forms differed significantly in design and purpose and, while it was still too early to assess fully, their capacity to promote neighbourhood regeneration in a period of austerity appeared limited. It concluded that these early findings suggested greater polarity between, and the further containment of, deprived neighbourhoods.
Source: Nick Bailey and Madeleine Pill, 'The potential for neighbourhood regeneration in a period of austerity: changing forms of neighbourhood governance in two cities', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, Volume 7 Number 2
An article examined the effectiveness of heritage-based urban investment in the regeneration of deprived communities. It reported data from the Townscape Heritage Initiative research project, which had examined 16 projects across the United Kingdom over a 12-year period, monitoring and evaluating the impacts of investment across a range of themes, such as quality of life, economic activity, confidence and appearance. The article drew conclusions regarding the capacity of such projects to weather the impact of economic downturns, and discussed criteria for assessing resilience.
Source: Alan Reeve and Robert Shipley, 'Heritage-based regeneration in an age of austerity: lessons from the Townscape Heritage Initiative', Journal of Urban Regeneration and Renewal, Volume 7 Number 2
A new book examined the link between area-based policies, neighbourhood-based problems, and neighbourhood effects in developed countries.
Source: David Manley, Maarten van Ham, Nick Bailey, Ludi Simpson, and Duncan Maclennan (eds), Neighbourhood Effects or Neighbourhood Based Problems?, Springer (Publication date: 2014)
Notes: Chapters included:
Rebecca Tunstall, 'Neighbourhood effects and evidence in neighbourhood policy in the UK: have they been connected and should they be?'
Stephen Syrett and David North, 'Spatially-concentrated worklessness and neighbourhood policies: experiences from New Labour in England'
An article examined the role of different intermediate agencies in housing-led urban regeneration in Cardiff (Wales) and Seoul (South Korea). The policy network in Cardiff was horizontally organized, favouring inclusiveness – whereas the network in Seoul was hierarchical, favouring efficiency, internal legitimacy, and stability.
Source: Yoonseuk Woo, 'Two tails of housing-led urban regeneration policy network: the UK and South Korea', International Planning Studies, Volume 19 Issue 1