A report evaluated the Your first EURES job scheme, a mobility scheme implemented by the European Commission between 2011 and 2013 to help young Europeans between ages 18 and 30 to find a job, traineeship, or apprenticeship in other European Union countries. The evaluation examined the results achieved over the first two years of the scheme and considered the main challenges to be addressed in the future. The report made a range of recommendations, including calling on the Commission to: continue managing the scheme at European Union level; embed the scheme within the EURES services; ensure a balance of project types and geographical coverage; and extend the duration of projects and strengthen public-private partnership networks.
Source: Ecorys, Evaluation of the Your first EURES job Preparatory Action: Final report, European Commission
An article examined the European Union youth strategy, applying a 'southern theory perspective' to examine reasons for a lack of impact on levels of youth unemployment, underemployment, and child and youth poverty.
Source: Judith Bessant and Rob William Watts, '"Cruel optimism": a southern theory perspective on the European Union's Youth Strategy, 2008ï¿½2012', International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, Volume 19 Issue 1
A new book examined the thoughts and feelings of young people in eight European countries (including the United Kingdom) about education. The book was based on questionnaires and interviews with different actors involved in young people's education, as well as essays written by students in their final year of compulsory school about their journeys through school education, the opportunities that had opened or closed for them, their feelings about the relevance of education for their lives, and their hopes and concerns for the future. The project also produced an accompanying video.
Source: Mirjana Ule, Alenka Svab, Andreas Walther, and John Litau, Far From Frozen: Creative strategies of young people in disadvantaged circumstances, European Union
An article examined the progress of research into education-work transitions in Europe. It said that the research had made 'significant if uneven' progress towards explaining national differences in transitions. Its achievements appeared more significant when viewed from a perspective that emphasized the case-oriented rather than variables-oriented aims of comparative research.
Source: David Raffe, 'Explaining national differences in education-work transitions: twenty years of research on transition systems', European Societies, Volume 16 Issue 2
A survey examined the views of Europeans aged 16-30 in the 28 European Union member states on issues related to youth and employment, the digital revolution, the future of the European Union, sustainable development, and European values.
Source: European Youth in 2014: Analytical synthesis, European Parliament
A report by a committee of peers said that youth unemployment was one of the most urgent problems facing Europe, having been exacerbated by the economic crisis. It said that responsibility for action rested primarily with member states, but the European Union could add value by encouraging the exchange of good practice between member states, by supporting them to co-ordinate their responses, and by kick-starting structural changes. It also discussed the performance of the Youth Guarantee and Youth Contract. The report called for a range of measures, including: a combination of support for immediate action and for action to address longer term structural and systemic issues in the European labour market; for changes to the existing system of managing EU funding in England, with Local Enterprise Partnerships and their partner local authorities given sufficient control of funds in order to identify, plan, manage, and deliver local schemes; and for meaningful consultation of young people in the development and implementation of programmes.
Source: Youth Unemployment in the EU: A scarred generation?, 12th Report (Session 201314), HL 164, House of Lords European Union Select Committee, TSO
An article examined the extent to which cyclical, structural, and institutional factors explained cross-national variation in youth labour market integration in Europe. It said that economic globalization had a positive effect on youth labour market integration. Young people also experienced fewer difficulties with labour market integration where the educational system was more vocationally specific. Where employment protection legislation of incumbent workers was stricter, young people experienced more difficulties with labour market integration, especially those who were higher-educated.
Source: Marloes de Lange, Maurice Gesthuizen, and Maarten Wolbers, 'Youth labour market integration across Europe: the impact of cyclical, structural, and institutional characteristics', European Societies, Volume 16 Issue 2
A report examined the quality of life of young people in Europe in 2011, compared with 2007. Key findings included: more young people lived with their parents than in 2007; deprivation had increased for young people of all social backgrounds in nearly all European Union countries (including the United Kingdom), especially for those living in extended families with their parents and their own children; and unemployed and inactive young people were more likely to feel socially excluded or lonely, to lack social support, and to have lower levels of mental well-being.
Source: Eurofound, Social Situation of Young People in Europe, European Union
A report examined the evidence on youth work across the European Union. It said that there was a diversity in youth work practice, actors involved, observable trends in the sector, features of successful youth work, and the range of outcomes associated with that success. The report noted a lack of historic data and robust evaluation that made it difficult to demonstrate effectiveness, but said that available evidence illustrated that youth work practice could bring a range of positive outcomes for young people and wider society. A further report was published alongside this, providing case studies from across Europe.
Source: Working with Young People: The value of youth work in the European Union, European Commission
A paper examined the working conditions of young people in Europe, and outlined the responses of the European institutions, national governments and social partners. It said that young people were subject to poorer working conditions, and were more likely to have non-standard forms of employment, than older workers. The report noted the variations between conditions across a range of variables, such as differences between the various member states, and differences by gender, age, and level of qualifications. It said that policy responses tended to focus on job creation, rather than being concerned with working conditions. The report made policy recommendations.
Source: Working Conditions of Young Entrants to the Labour Market, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions (Eurofound)
A report examined young people and employment in eight European countries, including the United Kingdom. It said that although there were insufficient jobs, employers also could not find the skills they needed. It discussed the barriers to obtaining further and vocational education and made suggestions for change at the national and European Union level.
Source: Mona Mourshed, Jigar Patel, and Katrin Suder, Education to Employment: Getting Europeï¿½s youth into work, McKinsey Center for Government
A paper examined the employment situation of young and old workers in the European Union member states during the recent economic crisis, and policies implemented to promote their employment. It said that, although policies to enhance the functioning of European Union labour markets were crucial to both groups, policy responsibility still predominantly lay within member states. However, it noted that initiatives taken at the European Union level could still add value, such as through facilitating regional and cross-border mobility.
Source: Werner Eichhorst, Tito Boeri, An de Coen, Vincenzo Galasso, Michael Kendzia, and Nadia Steiber, How to Combine the Entry of Young People in the Labour Market with the Retention of Older Workers?, Institute for the Study of Labor (Bonn)