A report examined the role of cities in the delivery of European Union cohesion policy. The report outlined the historic urban agenda in policy development, and the enhanced role of cities in the 2014-2020 cohesion policy, presenting a range of case studies that included the city of Leeds, in the north of England.
Source: Christine Hamza, Alexandra Frangenheim, David Charles, and Stephen Miller, The Role of Cities in Cohesion Policy 2014-2020, European Parliament
A paper described the degree of urbanization (DEGURBA) classification, which distinguished three types of areas (densely populated, intermediate, and thinly populated areas), based on the population grid. The paper discussed the benefits of the approach, and described the method and how it was developed.
Source: Lewis Dijkstra and Hugo Poelman, A Harmonised Definition of Cities and Rural Areas: The new degree of urbanisation, European Commission
An article examined the causal relationship between the multi-dimensional concepts of urbanization and socio-economic status in the European Union. The relationship between urbanization and status was positive, meaning that urban areas contained the residences of the elite, such as rich people, those with high levels of educational attainment, and people with high-calibre jobs. No evidence was found that individuals lost socio-economic status as they aged, or that status was higher in capital city regions. The relationship between urbanization and status was relatively stronger for the old working-age cohort and for the non-capital city regions.
Source: Vassilis Tselios, 'Urbanization and socioeconomic status in the European regions: the role of population ageing and capital city regions', European Planning Studies, Volume 22 Issue 9
An article examined policy strategies in response to urban shrinkage in Europe. Four strategies were identified: (1) trivializing shrinkage; (2) countering shrinkage; (3) accepting shrinkage; and (4) utilizing shrinkage. The article said that accepting shrinkage by improving the quality of life for the city's existing residents was the most suitable and sustainable strategy.
Source: Gert-Jan Hospers, 'Policy responses to urban shrinkage: from growth thinking to civic engagement', European Planning Studies, Volume 22 Issue 7