A report examined developments in governance for health in Europe (defined as the attempts of governments and other actors to steer communities, countries, or groups of countries in the pursuit of health as integral to well-being).
Source: Ilona Kickbusch and David Gleicher (eds), Smart Governance for Health and Well-Being: The evidence, World Health Organization
An article examined the knowledge and beliefs of public policymakers on social inequalities in health, and policies to reduce such inequalities, in 13 European cities including London, England. It said that health inequalities were perceived by most policymakers as differences in life expectancy between populations with economic, social, and geographical differences, and that addressing inequalities was a key priority, but the main barriers were thought to be bureaucracy, funding, and population beliefs. The article called for further research on effective universal policies (including evaluation), and training for policymakers and officers on health inequalities.
Source: Joana Morrison, Mariona Pons-Vigues, Laia Becares, Bo Burstrom, Ana Gandarillas, Felicitas Dominguez-Berjon, Elia Diez, Giuseppe Costa, Milagros Ruiz, Hynek Pikhart, Chiara Marinacci, Rasmus Hoffmann, Paula Santana, Carme Borrell, and others, 'Health inequalities in European cities: perceptions and beliefs among local policymakers', BMJ Open, Volume 4 Issue 5
A report examined breast cancer care services in Europe, based on a survey in 25 countries (including the United Kingdom). The report examined healthcare organization, cancer screening, breast cancer care organization, safety and quality, accreditation and certification schemes, and competence requirements for professionals.
Source: Donata Lerda, Silvia Deandrea, Crystal Freeman, Jesus Lopez-Alcalde, Luciana Neamtiu, Ciaran Nicholl, Nicholas Nicholson, Asli Uluturk, and Silvia Villanueva, Report of a European Survey on the Organisation of Breast Cancer Care Services, European Commission
A paper examined differences in self-reported health between the lowest and the highest income groups across Europe, drawing on data from the European Social Survey for 29 countries. It said that income-related health inequalities were found in all countries, with larger relative inequalities among men observed in Greece, Kosovo, Ireland, Israel, Iceland, and Slovenia, and among women in Lithuania, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Cyprus, and Czech Republic.
Source: Olena Tigova, Income-Related Inequalities in Self-Reported Health across 29 European Countries: Findings from the European Social Survey, Centre for Health Equity Studies (Stockholm University)
An article examined the association between psychosocial, socio-demographic, and material determinants of positive mental health in Europe. Drawing on data on 34 countries from the European Quality of Life Survey, it said that the prevalence of poor positive mental health was 30 per cent in women and 24 per cent in men, and that material, as well as psychosocial, and socio-demographic factors were independently associated with poor positive mental health.
Source: Stefanie Dreger, Christoph Buck, and Gabriele Bolte, 'Material, psychosocial and sociodemographic determinants are associated with positive mental health in Europe: a cross-sectional study', BMJ Open, Volume 4 Issue 5
An article examined the associations between (on the one hand) socio-demographic, psychosocial, material, and occupational factors and (on the other) self-reported health in the European working population.
Source: Stefanie Schutte, Jean-Francois Chastang, Agnes Parent-Thirion, Greet Vermeylen, and Isabelle Niedhammer, 'Association between socio-demographic, psychosocial, material and occupational factors and self-reported health among workers in Europe', Journal of Public Health, Volume 36 Number 2
A new book examined health professional mobility in the context of a changing Europe, including discussion of: the changing dynamics of health professional mobility; the mobile individual worker; and policy responses at European Union, national, and organizational level.
Source: James Buchan, Matthias Wismar, Irene Glinos, and Jeni Bremner (eds), Health Professional Mobility in a Changing Europe: New dynamics, mobile individuals and diverse responses, World Health Organisation
An article examined published studies of social and health policies or interventions to tackle health inequalities in European cities, based on a scoping review. It said that, although health behaviours were not the main determinants of health inequalities, they were the focus of the majority of studies in the review.
Source: Mariona Pons-Vigues, Elia Diez, Joana Morrison, Sergio Salas-Nicas, Rasmus Hoffmann, Bo Burstrom, Jitse van Dijk, and Carme Borrell, 'Social and health policies or interventions to tackle health inequalities in European cities: a scoping review', BMC Public Health, Volume 14
An article examined emerging European Union-level initiatives designed to support national health systems. It said that health system objectives were increasingly entering the EU health policy agenda. Under recent initiatives, health system goals were more closely tied to the EU's economic growth 'narrative'. The design of some policies might intensify socio-economic and health inequalities rather than ameliorate them.
Source: Timo Clemens, Kai Michelsen, and Helmut Brand, 'Supporting health systems in Europe: added value of EU actions?', Health Economics, Policy and Law, Volume 9 Issue 1
An article examined how welfare spending affected inequalities in self-rated health across Europe, as well as the level of poor self-rated health in the low-education group across varying levels of social spending. Absolute and relative educational inequalities in poor health were found to be smaller in European countries with high social spending. The association was more marked among women than among men.
Source: Espen Dahl and Kjetil van der Wel, 'Educational inequalities in health in European welfare states: a social expenditure approach', Social Science & Medicine, Volume 81
An article examined the issue of equal rights to healthcare in the European Union. The European Court of Justice had strengthened the right to healthcare in other member states: but this could not create an equal right to healthcare when states were so different. The Court had formulated 'rules for rights' – not so much European social citizenship rights as a set of legal principles by which it judged the decisions of the member states.
Source: Scott Greer and Tomislav Sokol, 'Rules for rights: European law, health care and social citizenship', European Law Journal, Volume 20 Issue 1
An article examined two cases of Europeanization in health policy – formal decision-making procedures, and health technology assessment. Even in the less likely case of coverage decision-making, some traces of Europeanization could be found. This was possible because the Commission had a strong interest in further integration in this field, and all other relevant actors had motives to at least engage in co-operation.
Source: Katharina Bohm and Claudia Landwehr, 'The Europeanization of health care coverage decisions: EU-regulation, policy learning and cooperation in decision-making', Journal of European Economic Integration, Volume 36 Issue 1