A report examined progress in the promotion of gender equality in public research, and discussed the variety of policies across 31 European countries.
Source: Anke Lipinsky, Gender Equality Policies in Public Research, European Commission
A paper examined gender equality within European institutions and the European Parliament. It said that the rise in female participation had been slow but substantial over the previous two decades, but representation in the most influential positions remained low. The report said that major improvements were unlikely unless stricter measures were enacted, and it called on the European Union to take action and to consider the need to use more quota-based measures.
Source: Vilde Renman and Caroline Conroy, Advances in EU Gender Equality: Missing the mark?, European Policy Institutes Network
An article examined the European Year for Combating Poverty and Social Exclusion (EY 2010) and considered the nature of gender diversities in European Union policies. The article discussed how gender and ethnicity were articulated in the policy-making process that led to the adoption of EY 2010, the activities undertaken, and its evaluation, and suggested how the European Union policy framework interacted with particular national contexts to affect policy that considered the intersection between gender and diversity.
Source: Lise Rolandsen Agustin and Birte Siim, 'Gender diversities ï¿½ practising intersectionality in the European Union', Ethnicities, Volume 14 Number 4
A report examined ways in which national equality bodies might engage with equality duty bearers (defined as people and organizations that had an explicit legal duty under European Union and national equality legislation). The report outlined the range of EU-wide obligations, considered available engagement tools (such as legal mechanisms, research, training, and dialogue), and discussed issues relating to the choice of the 'right tool'.
Source: Joint Responsibility for Equal Treatment: How equality bodies work with duty bearers, Equinet (European Network of Equality Bodies)
A new book examined the development of antidiscrimination policy in Europe. It discussed the role of the European institutions and key societal actors in the passage of the Racial Equality Directive in 2000, the development of European Union directives into national law, and the implementation of antidiscrimination policy. The book argued that the processes were affected by the slower rate of European integration in the early 2000s, as well as political pressure from more conservative governments.
Source: Terri Givens and Rhonda Evans Case, Legislating Equality: The politics of antidiscrimination policy in Europe, Oxford University Press
A report examined the work of the Women's Rights and Gender Equality Committee in contributing to the effective implementation of gender mainstreaming in the committees and delegations of the European parliament.
Source: Manuela Samek Lodovici, Flavia Pesce, Davide Barbieri, Daniela Loi, Erica Melloni, and Cristina Vasilescu, Gender Mainstreaming in Committees and Delegations of the European Parliament, European Parliament
A report examined the implementation of the Racial Equality and Employment Equality directives across European Union member states. It said that the provisions were now national law in all 28 European Union countries, but national authorities still needed to ensure effective protection to victims of discrimination, particularly in raising public awareness of rights and addressing underreporting of discrimination cases.
Source: Joint Report on the Application of Council Directive 2000/43/EC of 29 June 2000 Implementing the Principle of Equal Treatment between Persons Irrespective of Racial Or Ethnic Origin (ï¿½Racial Equality Directiveï¿½) and of Council Directive 2000/78/EC of 27 November 2000 Establishing a General Framework for Equal Treatment in Employment And Occupation (ï¿½Employment Equality Directiveï¿½), European Commission