A think-tank report examined the demographics, geography, life experiences, attitudes, and socio-economic status of the five largest minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom (Indian, Pakistani, Black African, Black Caribbean, and Bangladeshi). It said that Black and minority ethnic communities would continue to increase (making up almost one third of the UK population by 2050), that the communities were geographically concentrated in a few, very large cities (especially London, Birmingham, and Manchester), and that there were differences between the communities that were important for policy-makers and politicians to understand. Drawing on data from existing survey sources (the 2011 Census, Understanding Society, and the 2010 Ethnic Minority British Election Study), the report chapters covered: community origins; population; geography; citizenship and identity; religion; household composition; economic activity; health; education; media; and politics and civic engagement.
Source: Rishi Sunak and Saratha Rajeswaran, A Portrait of Modern Britain, Policy Exchange
A report examined predicted demographic trends in Scotland and the potential implications for Scottish independence. It said that by 2037 the working age population was expected to reduce by 3.5 per cent, and that Scotland would need to support longer working lives and address disability-free life expectancy levels for males in Scotland, which were four years shorter than the United Kingdom as a whole. The report said that the dependency ratio (the ratio of non-working age people to working age) would rise by 40 per cent in Scotland (compared with 30 per cent in the UK) at the same time as oil and gas revenues were anticipated to fall, and that this was likely to place pressures on government spending and taxation.
Source: Ben Franklin, Scottish Independence: Charting the implications of demographic change, International Longevity Centre – UK
A think-tank report said that official debt figures from both European Union and United States of America governments did not take into account future pension and healthcare obligations, which would increase as populations aged. The report said that the United Kingdom government would need to reduce public spending by one-quarter, cut health and social protection spending by half, or raise taxes significantly, in order to meet future spending obligations.
Source: Jagadeesh Gokhale, The Government Debt Iceberg, Institute of Economic Affairs
A report examined critical issues related to an ageing workforce in Northern Ireland, outlining the barriers faced by those wanting to continue working into older age, and their support, training, and policy needs. The report made recommendations for policy makers and employers.
Source: Ben Franklin, Working Longer in Northern Ireland: Valuing an ageing workforce, International Longevity Centre – UK
A report examined the use of life expectancy measures in United Kingdom policy, the drivers behind demographic shifts and population ageing, and the means, and use, of life expectancy calculations for policy purposes. It said that life expectancy was a measure of quantity, not quality, of life and that policies such as setting the state pension age needed to take account of healthy life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy. The report said that such measures varied significantly by region and social class, and policy decisions could therefore disadvantage particular groups more than others. It noted that raising the state pension age would transfer spending from the state pension to disability and unemployment benefits. The report made a range of recommendations for policy.
Source: David Sinclair, Kirsten Moore, and Ben Franklin, Linking State Pension Age to Longevity: Tackling the fairness challenge, International Longevity Centre – UK