An article examined the self-reported rates of exposure of people with disabilities to violent crime, hate crime, and disablist hate crime, drawing on data from the Life Opportunities Survey. It said that: adults with disabilities were significantly more likely to have been exposed over the previous twelve months to violent crime and hate crime than their non-disabled peers; and the differential risk of exposure to violent crime or hate crime was particularly high among those with mental health problems (and, in the case of hate crime, was also high among those people with cognitive impairments). It said that these effects were strongly moderated by poverty status, with no increased differential risk of exposure among more wealthy respondents with disabilities.
Source: Eric Emerson and Alan Roulstone, 'Developing an evidence base for violent and disablist hate crime in Britain: findings from the Life Opportunities Survey', Journal of Interpersonal Violence, Volume 29 Number 17
A report provided findings from a project that examined hate crime, looking at: people's experiences of hate, prejudice, and targeted hostility; the physical and emotional harms suffered by victims and their families; and ways in which to improve the quality of support offered to victims. A series of briefings were published alongside the main findings, together with a 'manifesto', which set out victim-centred recommendations based on the needs and expectations of those whose lives had been directly affected by hate crime.
Source: The Leicester Hate Crime Project, Findings and Conclusions, University of Leicester
Source: The Leicester Hate Crime Project, Briefing Paper 1: Disablist hate crime, University of Leicester
Source: The Leicester Hate Crime Project, Briefing Paper 2: Gendered hostility, University of Leicester
Source: The Leicester Hate Crime Project, Briefing Paper 3: Homophobic hate crime, University of Leicester
Source: The Leicester Hate Crime Project, Briefing Paper 4: Racist hate crime, University of Leicester
Source: The Leicester Hate Crime Project, Briefing Paper 5: Religiously motivated hate crime, University of Leicester
An article examined the psychological and physical impacts of hate crime across seven victim types, drawing on quantitative and qualitative data from the All Wales Hate Crime project.
Source: Matthew Williams and Jasmin Tregidga, 'Hate crime victimization in Wales: psychological and physical impacts across seven hate crime victim types', British Journal of Criminology, Volume 54 Number 5
A new book examined the experiences of veiled Muslim women as victims of Islamophobia, and the impact of this victimization. It said that the threat of abuse and violence had long-lasting effects for both actual and potential victims, and that there was a case for developing a more effective approach to engaging with female victims that recognized their potential multiple vulnerabilities and accounted for their cultural and religious needs.
Source: Irene Zempi and Neil Chakraborti, Islamophobia, Victimisation and the Veil, Palgrave Pivot
An article examined the effects of terrorist attacks in London and New York (commonly referred to as 7/7 and 9/11) on hate crime, using data from four police force areas in England with sizable Asian/Arab populations. It said that there had been significant increases in hate crimes against Asians and Arabs almost immediately in the wake of both terror attacks and, although they had subsequently reduced, they remained at higher than pre-attack levels a year later. The authors hypothesized that media coverage may act as a conduit, linking terror attacks and hate crimes.
Source: Emma Hanes and Stephen Machin, 'Hate crime in the wake of terror attacks: evidence from 7/7 and 9/11', Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, Volume 30 Number 3
A report by a committee of peers said that the criminal law was generally appropriate for the prosecution of offences committed using social media, although there were some gaps in the law that could be addressed. The committee also recommended that the Director of Public Prosecutions should clarify the circumstances in which an indecent communication could and should be subject to prosecution.
Source: Social Media and Criminal Offences, 1st Report (Session 201415), HL 37, House of Lords Communications Select Committee, TSO
A paper examined the risk of bullying victimization among children with disabilities in England, drawing on longitudinal data from two studies. It said that disability was associated with a higher risk of being bullied for both children and teenagers, and the association remained when other characteristics known to influence bullying were taken into account.
Source: Stella Chatzitheochari, Samantha Parsons, and Lucinda Platt, Bullying Experiences among Disabled Children and Young People in England: Evidence from two longitudinal studies, Working paper 14-11, Institute of Education (University of London)
An article examined whether targeted attacks on 'alternative subculture' members warranted classification as hate crimes. Drawing on qualitative interviews with respondents mostly affiliated to the 'Goth scene', it said that they experienced extensive verbal harassment and, for some respondents, repeated incidents of targeted violence. The article argued that such experiences bore comparison with key facets of hate crime.
Source: Jon Garland and Paul Hodkinson, '"F**king freak! What the hell do you think you look like?" Experiences of targeted victimization among Goths and developing notions of hate crime', British Journal of Criminology, Volume 54 Number 4
A new book examined the nature of hate crime victimization and perpetration, and discussed the need for research and professional innovation to contribute to the development of policy and practice.
Source: Neil Chakraborti and Jon Garland, Responding to Hate Crime: The case for connecting policy and research, Policy Press
A report (by an official advisory body) examined whether the two offences under which hate crime was prosecuted could be extended to bring equality of treatment across the five characteristics of disability, gender identity, race, religion, and sexual orientation. The report said that a consultation had revealed strong support for extending the aggravated offences, but also serious concerns from many stakeholders that the existing offences were unnecessarily complex and not working well. The Commission therefore recommended that a review of options should be conducted, but said that, in the absence of support or resources for a review, a less satisfactory solution would be for aggravated offences to be extended to disability, sexual orientation, and transgender identity. With regards to sentencing, the Commission said that the current, enhanced sentencing powers were under-used, partly because the the hostility element of hate crime was not always fully investigated, and the court was not always given the associated evidence. The report made recommendations for clearer sentencing guidance, and for the police national computer records to show where offences were proven to be aggravated by hostility.
Source: Hate Crime: Should the current offences be extended?, LC348, Law Commission
A new book examined the causes and consequences of hate crime victimization, and the use of restorative justice to repair the harms created by hate crime in the United Kingdom.
Source: Mark Austin Walters, Hate Crime and Restorative Justice: Exploring causes, repairing harms, Oxford University Press
The Northern Ireland Executive began consultation on proposals to publish a Sexual Orientation Strategy and Action Plan with the aim of promoting: an environment free from harassment and bullying; action against homophobia in all forms; and equality of opportunity for lesbian, gay and bisexual people. The consultation would close on 6 June 2014.
Source: Development of a Sexual Orientation Strategy and Action Plan: Consultation document, Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister