Ferrol - Urban History
San Campio Presidio, next to the Dock Gate (2004)

The careening docks were emptied using pumps, an exhausting - practically lethal - task, that was left to convicts. They worked chained together in underground galleries, suffering from high mortality rates. There was a constant risk of mutiny, as well as escape attempts. That is why a 'Presidio' was built in the Dock Dockyard, designed by the engineer Sánchez Bort, with a gaol which could house 1,000 convicts. After 1795, the introduction of steam pumps meant that convicts were no longer needed.

Photograph by the author