Ferrol - Urban History
Consolidation
R. Casas: 'The Charge' or 'Barcelona 1902' (1903)

The two-party system imposed by Cánovas led to the end of military uprisings. However, the Army Act (1878) and subsequent laws led to public order being gradually militarized, with the armed forces becoming involved in the repression of all kinds of social conflicts, and the authorities resorting time and time again to declaring a 'state of war'. Finally the '(Military) Jurisdiction Act' (1906) gave the military courts power to try crimes against the Army and the nation. As the crisis of the Restoration worsened, the Army and trade unions confronted each other openly on the streets. In the image, the 'Guardia Civil' breaks up a demonstration during the revolutionary general strike in Barcelona in 1902, the same year in which Alfonso XIII came to the throne.

Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid
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