Ferrol - Historia Urbana
'Historia de dos Ciudades'. La Memoria de Ferrol, entre la Marina de Guerra y la Clase Trabajadora.

Notes

* This essay includes some results from the research project 'El Area Metropolitana de A Coruña: Uso de la vivienda, participación ciudadana y planificación urbana', financed by the 'Dirección de Investigación y Desarrollo' of the 'Xunta de Galicia' (code PGIDT01SCX10201PR) in 2001-2003. I would like to thank Philip Ethington for the patience he has shown by reading and exhaustively commenting the successive versions of the original text and translation. I also would like to thank Xan Moreno, Iñaki Mendizábal, José Javier Ruiz Ibáñez and Ester Nasarre for their comments on the text, and Marisa López Schmidt for drawing the illustrations and for the generous help and assistance she has given me in general.

1 M. Foucault, Surveiller et punir (Paris, 1975).

2 P. Nora, Les lieux de mémoire (Paris, 1984-93).

3 M. Gluckman, 'An analysis of a social situation in Modern Zululand', African Studies, 14 (1940), 1-30, 147-74.

4 E.P. Thompson, 'The Moral Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century', Past and Present, 50 (1971), 76-136. The author shows how traditions of popular protest were associated with a set of political ideas regarding people's rights.

5 E.C. Cubillas, Desarrollo urbano y crisis social en Ferrol (Santiago de Compostela, 1984).

6 It was headquarters of the Real Audiencia de Galicia until the early 19th century, and later the capital of the new province of La Coruña.

7 'Neighbours'. The meaning of the Spanish term is similar to that of 'head of the household'.

8 At the end of 18th century, Galicia, a 29,400 km² region, had 1,340,000 inhabitants. A mere 10% of the population lived in urban areas with more than 2,000 inhabitants.

9 See A. Vigo Trasancos, Arquitectura y urbanismo en el Ferrol del S.XVIII (Santiago de Compostela, 1984) for the design and building of the Dockyards. See also J.A. Rodríguez-Villasante, Arte e tecnoloxía na construcción de Ferrol, in the Collective Work, Historia de Ferrol (A Coruña, 1988), 232-303.

10 J.L. Gómez Urdáñez, El proyecto reformista de Ensenada (Lleida, 1996).

11 After 1795, the introduction of steam pumps meant that convicts were no longer needed.

12 A. Martín, 'Levas honradas y levas de maleantes: los trabajadores forzosos en un arsenal del Antiguo Régimen', Obradoiro de Historia Moderna, 8 (1999), 231-260.

13 For the organization of the 'maestranza' see M. Santalla, La familia obrera, Ferrol 1750-1936 (unpublished Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Ph.D. thesis, 1995), Chapter 4.

14 In 1750, two vessels caught fire, in 1794 the sailcloth and rope factory were burned down. J. Montero y Arostegui, Historia y descripción de la ciudad de Ferrol (Ferrol, 1859), 45, 52-53.

15 Santalla, La familia obrera, 161.

16 M. Sánchez, 'Ferrol 1750-1800', Estudios Mindonienses, 7 (1991), 227-292.

17 'Appendix II', in Santalla, La familia obrera, 455-8

18 Ibid, 136.

19 By 1789, 2/3 of La Magdalena were built. See Vigo Trasancos, Arquitectura y urbanismo, the reference work for the history and design of La Magdalena neighbourhood. In the reign of Carlos III the Military Engineer Corps had been created and its corresponding Academy, where future engineers learnt how to design new cities. B. Castelo, 'A nova poboación: o barrio da Magdalena', in J.R. Soraluce &X. Fernández (dirs.), Arquitecturas da provincia da Coruña. Vol. XIV: Ferrol (A Coruña, 2001), 136.

20 Vigo Trasancos, Arquitectura y urbanismo, 237. There was a sentry box on 'Capitanía Palace' roof from where signals from the Dockyard's guardsmen could be received.

21 Ibid, 206, 255-8.

22 Santalla, La familia obrera, 401.

23 Ibid, 399.

24 Continuous provisions with regard to this matter are found in Sánchez, 'Ferrol 1750-1800'.

25 'Apéndice III: Hospicio para mujeres', 1782. Quoted in Santalla, La familia obrera, 458.

26 In 1797, 61% of the 'vecinos' were paid by the Navy. A. Martín, Una sociedad en cambio. Ferrol a finales del Antiguo Régimen (Ferrol, 2003), 34.

27 'Archivo Histórico Nacional, Estado', File 74-A. In A. Martín, 'Espacio urbano, población y sectores profesionales en El Ferrol del Antiguo Régimen', Estudios Mindonienses, 18 (2002), 1098-9.

28 Ibid, 1099. This division was legally sanctioned in 1845.

29 Ibid, 1106-9. The most skilled workers of the 'maestranza', the Navy non-commissioned officers and the Quartermaster Staff lived in both neighbourhoods.

30 Montero y Arostegui, Historia y descripción, 104-5.

31 E.P. Thompson, 'Rough Music', in Customs in Common (New York, 1993).

32 F. Tomás y Valiente, El derecho penal de la Monarquía Absoluta (Siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII), (Madrid, 1992). I am currently working on an article that discusses this topic.

33 'Archivo del Reino de Galicia, Real Audiencia, Causas', File 73, nº 20. I found the reference in Santalla, La familia obrera, 171.

34 Castelo, 'A nova poboación', 150-1.

35 In Ferrol, in 1805 the Navy had dedicated an ephemeral tumulus to the Spanish victims of the battle of Trafalgar. See J. Varela, 'La muerte del héroe', Historia Social, 1 (1988), 19-28.

36 Martín, 'Espacio urbano', 1114-16.

37 The police force created in Spain in 1844.

38 A public washing place where women would wash clothes.

39 P. Nieto, Memoria acerca de las condiciones higiénicas y estado sanitario de El Ferrol (Ferrol, 1895), 32.

40 Santalla, La familia obrera, 348-9.

41 A. Gomis, La insurrección de Ferrol de 1872 (A Coruña, 2000).

42 C. Reyero, La escultura conmemorativa en España (Madrid, 1999).

43 G. Llorca, 'Ferrol Contemporáneo', in Collective Work, Historia de Ferrol (A Coruña, 1998), 344-6.

44 B. Castelo, Ferrol: Morfología urbana y arquitectura civil, 1900-1940 (A Coruña, 1991), 175.

45 Ibid, 177-8

46 B. Maíz, Resistencia, guerrilla e represión. Causas e Consellos de Guerra: Ferrol, 1934-1955 (Vigo, 2003).

47 Ibid. The research, carried out using military archives, only goes as far as 1954, since legislation prevents access to documents that are less than 50 years old.

48 B. Castelo, 'A expansión urbana: O Ferrol del Caudillo', in J.R Soraluce & X. Fernández (dirs.), Arquitecturas, 212.

49 A monument dedicated to the dead who fought on the pro-Franco side during the Civil War.

50 Llorca, 'Ferrol Contemporáneo', 381-382.

51 R. Villares, 'Un truncado lugar de memoria', La Voz de Galicia (12 November 2000), 28-30.

52 Cubillas, Desarrollo urbano, 63-4.

53 B. Castelo, 'A la manera de epílogo: 1936-1940. La involución urbanística', in Ferrol: Morfología urbana, 483-500.

54 'España Square' had already been planned in 1940 around a monument dedicated to Franco. As it surpassed the most urgent needs -and budget- of the city, the square was not established until 1953.

55 J. González, 'La escultura pública de Ferrol', Estudios Mindonienses, 7 (1991), 293-330.

56 J.M. Cardesín, 'Redes flexibles y redes rígidas: urbanización, producción, y transporte en la Galicia litoral', in B. Ruiz & J.M. Cardesín (coord.), Antropología Hoy: Teorías, técnicas y tácticas (Murcia, 1999), 117-135.

57 Ibid.

58 Ibid.

59 J.M. Cardesín, 'Que faire de la statue de Franco? Mémoire historique et action politique à Ferrol (Espagne)', Histoire Urbaine, 6 (2002), 131-150.

60 Castelo, 'A expansión urbana', 264, 268. And González, 'La escultura pública de Ferrol'.

61 M. Santalla, Los sucesos de Marzo de 1972 (Santiago de Compostela, 1996).

62 Castelo, 'A expansión urbana', 252-3. Three years later, 500 families of Esteiro, who had been temporarily accommodated in prefabricated huts, were still waiting for the council houses under construction on the new housing estate called Polígono de Caranza. All these families would participate in a mass squat in the new dwellings.

63 See 'Nuevo Barrio de Recimil', in Un proyecto de ciudad (political manifesto).

64 La Voz de Galicia (19 July 2000), 45-7.

65 Dossier 'Comunicados con el futuro', La Voz de Galicia (15 February 2003).

66 J. Gelpi, Una ciudad irrepetible. Ferrol ante el futuro. Conversión de infraestructuras Navales Militares (A Coruña, 1994).

67 Fundación Ferrol Metrópoli, Ferrol de la Ilustración hacia el Patrimonio de la Humanidad (Ferrol, 2001). The text is a catalogue for the exhibition organised that same year by the Foundation, which received the institutional backing of both the municipal corporation and the Autonomous Government of Galicia.

68 Cardesín, 'Que faire de la statue de Franco?'.

69 This question was the subject of two monographic issues of the annual journal of the 'Asociación [Española] de Historia Contemporánea'. E. Moradiellos (ed.), 'Dossier La Guerra Civil', Ayer, 50 (2003), 11-234. And C. Mir (ed.), 'Dossier La represión bajo el Franquismo', Ayer, 43 (2001), 11-190.

70 Cardesín, 'Que faire de la statue de Franco?'.

71 A survey carried out by the newspaper La Voz de Galicia in November 2000, showed that the population was divided by almost 50% about the issue whether it was convenient to suppress the statue or not.