These terms of use explain the terms on which you may make use of our website at ("our site", "Cambridge Journals Online").

Please read these terms of use carefully before you start to use our site.

By using our site, you confirm that you accept these terms of use and that you agree to comply with them. If you do not agree to these terms, you must not use our site.


Cambridge Journals Online is operated by Cambridge University Press (a department of the University of Cambridge) ("Cambridge", "we", "us", "our"). Our principal place of business is University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge, CB2 8BS, United Kingdom.


We may revise these terms of use at any time by amending this page.

Please check this page from time to time to take notice of any changes we make, as they are binding on you. Your continued use of our site shall be deemed to constitute your acknowledgement of any such changes.


If you supply personal details to us through this site then you consent to us maintaining, recording and using such personal data in accordance with our Privacy Policy at


Parts of our site are available to browse free of charge, and some content is only available to those who have paid for, or have otherwise been permitted, access to it ("Restricted Content", and collectively, "Content").

Only individuals who have been authorised either by an institution licensed by us ("Institution") or directly by us (collectively, "Authorised Users") may access the Restricted Content.

Authorised Users access the Restricted Content via a network which is only accessible to Authorised Users whose identities are authenticated by their Institution at the time of login by an authentication process agreed between us and the Institution, such as Athens or Shibboleth (SAML) technology-based authentication, IP ranges, username and password ("Secure Network").

We do not guarantee that our site, or any part of it, will always be available or be uninterrupted. Access to our site is permitted on a temporary basis. We may suspend, withdraw, discontinue or change all or any part of our site without notice. We will not be liable to you if for any reason our site is unavailable at any time or for any period.


All Authorised Users shall treat all logins, passwords or other Authorised User identification required for access to the Restricted Content as confidential and not disclose them to any other person.

We have the right to suspend or terminate access to our site at any time, if in our reasonable opinion you have failed to comply with, or are in breach of, any of the provisions of these terms of use.

Where an Authorised User or Institution is unable to access, or is experiencing difficulties in accessing our site, we or our designated third-party agent may access and administer the account in question to identify and resolve access issues.



Subject to your level of access to our site, the restrictions below, and solely for the purposes of research, teaching or private study, you may:

    1. access, view, download, store and print Content; and

    2. incorporate links to Content in electronic course packs or management systems.

Nothing in these terms of use shall in any way exclude, modify or affect any of your statutory rights under applicable copyright law.

Text and data mining

You may download, extract, store and index Content for the purposes of text and data mining ("TDM") for non-commercial research purposes only and may mount, load, integrate and analyse the results of TDM on your personal devices or Secure Network subject to the inclusion of a link to the underlying Content on our site. Any copies of the Content stored locally by you for the purposes of TDM shall be deleted once such research project ends.

You may use the results of your TDM in your research and make the results of your TDM available on externally facing websites provided no Content, or part of any Content, is made available other than as expressly permitted by applicable law.

You shall not use the results of TDM in any activity, with any third parties or in any way that would compete with any of our products or services. To request a commercial licence to conduct TDM please contact the Rights and Permissions Department at


Except in the course of exercising rights specifically granted in these terms of use or permitted under any applicable Creative Commons licence, you may not:

    1. remove or alter our copyright notice or other means of identification or disclaimers as they appear on any Content;

    2. systematically make printed or electronic copies of any Content;

    3. permit access to the Restricted Content to anyone who is not an Authorised User;

    4. display or distribute any part of any Restricted Content on any electronic network, (including without limitation the internet and the world wide web) other than your Secure Network;

    5. use all or any part of any Content for the purposes of direct or indirect financial gain by means of sale, resale, loan, transfer, hire or other form of exploitation of the Content. For the avoidance of doubt, commercial use shall not include use by you of the Content in the course of research funded by a commercial organisation;

    6. modify, adapt or alter any Content or make available any Content in any other form or medium or create derivative works from any Content without our prior written permission;

    7. create a database in electronic or structured manual form by downloading and storing any Content;

    8. attempt to interfere with the proper workings of any online provision of the Content including attempting to circumvent security, tamper with, hack into or otherwise disrupt or compromise the functionality or availability of our server or other internet-connected device used as part of our IT system which enables access to the Content;

    9. either individually or collectively download Content at rate which exceeds 500 pdfs per hour. We reserve the right to withdraw access to Restricted Content in the event of a download rate in excess of this rate;

    10. use any automated retrieval devices (such as web robots, wanderers, crawlers, spiders of similar devices); nor

    11. otherwise download, store, reproduce, transmit, display, print, copy, distribute, extract, exploit or use the Content.


We are the owner or licensee of all intellectual property rights in our site, and in the Content published on it. The Content is protected by copyright laws and treaties around the world. All such rights are reserved.

All Content in the form published on our site is copyright © Cambridge University Press or published by us under licence from the copyright holder.


All Content on our site is provided for general information only.

Although we make reasonable efforts to update the information on our site, we make no representations, warranties or guarantees, whether express or implied that the Content on our site is accurate, complete, up-to-date or free from errors or omissions.


Nothing in these terms of use excludes or limits our liability for death or personal injury arising from our negligence, or our fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation, or any other liability that cannot be excluded or limited by English law.

To the extent permitted by law, we exclude all conditions, warranties, representations or other terms which may apply to our site or any Content on it, whether express or implied.

We will not be liable to any user for any loss or damage, whether in contract, tort (including negligence), breach of statutory duty, or otherwise, even if foreseeable, arising under or in connection with use of, or inability to use our site or use of or reliance on any Content displayed on our site.


We do not guarantee that our site will be secure or free from bugs or viruses.

You must not misuse our site by knowingly introducing viruses, trojans, worms, logic bombs or other material which is malicious or technologically harmful. You must not attempt to gain unauthorised access to our site, the server on which our site is stored or any server, computer or database connected to our site.


You may link to our home page, provided you do so in a way that is fair and legal and does not damage our reputation or take advantage of it.

If you wish to make any use of Content on our site other than that set out above, please contact


Where our site contains links to other sites and resources provided by third parties, these links are provided for your information only.

We have no control over and do not endorse the contents of those sites or resources.


These terms of use, any contract that incorporates them, and any dispute or claim (including non-contractual disputes or claims) arising out of or in connection with them or their formation are governed by English law. We both agree that the courts of England will have exclusive jurisdiction.


In the event of any comments or questions concerning these terms of use, please contact us by e-mailing us at or writing to Cambridge University Press, University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge, CB2 8BS, UK.

Thank you for visiting our site.