Epidemiology and Infection publishes original reports and reviews on all aspects of infection in humans and animals. Particular emphasis is given to the epidemiology, prevention and control of infectious diseases. The scope covers the zoonoses, outbreaks, food hygiene, vaccine studies, statistics and the clinical, social and public- health aspects of infectious disease, as well as some tropical infections. It has become the key international periodical in which to find the latest reports on recently discovered infections and new technology. For those concerned with policy and planning for the control of infections, the papers on mathematical modelling of epidemics caused by historical, current and emergent infections are of particular value. Papers that do not fall exactly within the main themes of the scope should be discussed in advance with the Senior Editor. All papers need to be of very high quality and global relevance to be considered for publication.
The requirements of the journal are in accordance with the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals [British Medical Journal 1991; 302: 338–341 and New England Journal of Medicine 1991; 324: 424–428.]. Particular attention is drawn to the sections on originality, copyright, prior and duplicate publication, and ethical guidelines.
Epidemiology and Infection only accepts electronic submission of manuscripts, allowing authors to benefit from faster review and earlier, online publication. Authors should submit their manuscripts online to http://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/hyg.
The preferred file format for uploading your submission is as a Word document. LaTeX files (.tex) may only be submitted where a paper contains significant mathematical content. LaTeX files should be accompanied by any files referenced by the .tex file (such as image files and bibliographic files). Please do not try to upload PDF files of your text. The system will automatically convert your files to a PDF. All files should be named in a logical way (e.g. [firstauthorsurname]Fig1.tif).
Authors who are unable to submit online should contact the Editorial Office (firstname.lastname@example.org) for assistance. For the purposes of reviewing, high-resolution graphics for figures are not necessary; authors may submit low-resolution versions of figures, but you should ensure that they are of sufficient quality for viewing on-screen. On submission of your revised manuscript, high-resolution versions saved in the specified formats should be uploaded. Full instructions and a Help function are available on the site.
Please note the journal will be published online-only from January 2015
During the submission process, you may specify preferred or non-preferred reviewers. You may propose preferred reviewers who are especially qualified to referee the work, who are not close colleagues and who would not have a conflict of interest. If you suggest more than one preferred reviewer, the suggested reviewers must have an international geographical spread. If you would prefer that particular reviewers do not evaluate a paper, you may indicate them as non-preferred reviewers and this will be treated confidentially. Suggestions regarding reviewers will be considered by the Associate Editors and taken into account; it is however the decision of the Editors whether or not to use them.
Covering letter: Manuscripts must be accompanied by a covering letter. This must include (a) information on prior or duplicate publication or submission elsewhere of any part of the work; (b) a statement of financial or other relationships that might lead to a conflict of interests; (c) a statement that the manuscript has been read and approved by all authors; (d) the name and address (including email address) of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs. It is important to include a short summary of why the paper is thought to be important and original, and relevant to Epidemiology and Infection.
Originality: To be published in Epidemiology and Infection, a manuscript cannot have been published previously, nor can it be under review for publication elsewhere. On submission, you will be asked to confirm that the information in the manuscript is new and original, and that the manuscript has been submitted solely to this journal and is not published, in press, or submitted elsewhere. Papers with multiple authors are reviewed on the assumption that all authors have contributed materially to the research, have approved the submitted manuscript and concur with its submission to Epidemiology and Infection. You are asked to confirm these points on submission.
Copyright and permissions: The manuscripts must be accompanied by copies of any permissions to reproduce published material, to use illustrations, to report sensitive personal information of identifiable persons, or to name persons for their contributions. These must be sent as hard copies by ordinary non-urgent post, signed by the submitting author. The electronic version of the paper submitted should state that these are in the post. Authors of articles published in the journal assign copyright to Cambridge University Press (with certain rights reserved) and you will receive a copyright assignment form for signature on acceptance of your paper. You can find further information about how to request permission to use third-party copyrighted material at the following link: http://www.journals.cambridge.org/artworkguide.
Ethical and regulatory guidelines: All research must meet ethical and regulatory guidelines, including adherence to the legal requirements of the study country. The Editors may ask for written confirmation of this when considered necessary.
Manuscripts must be in English and typed double-spaced. Allow margins of at least 1" (25 mm); do not hyphenate words at the end of lines and do not justify right margins. Include a title page, summary, text, acknowledgements, declaration of interest, references, tables, and legends for illustrations. Number the lines in your submission. Number the pages consecutively, beginning with the title page. Type the page number in the upper or lower right-hand corner of each page. Numbers should be spelled out when they occur at the beginning of a sentence; use Arabic numerals elsewhere. Abbreviations should be used sparingly and non-standard abbreviations should be defined at their first occurrence. Metric system (SI) units should be used. Manuscripts that do not conform to the style of Epidemiology and Infection will be returned without review.
The title page should carry (a) the title of the article, which should be concise, but informative; (b) initials and last name of each author; (c) name of department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed; (d) disclaimers, if any; (e) name, mailing address and email address of author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript; (f) name and address of author to whom correspondence and requests for reprints should be addressed or statement that reprints will not be available from the author; (g) a short running head of no more than 40 characters (counting letters and spaces) placed at the foot of the title page and identified.
Authors are to be listed as initials and surname (family name) in the style A. B. SMITH (with full stops after initials). Do not spell out forenames and do not include degrees, status or position. Identify each author’s institution by a superscript number (e.g. A.B. SMITH1) and list the institutions underneath and after the final author.
All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. A paper with corporate (collective) authorship must specify the key persons responsible for the article; others contributing to the work should be recognized separately (see 'Acknowledgements'). Editors may require authors to justify the assignment of authorship.
The second page should carry a summary of 150-200 words. The summary should state the purposes of the study or investigation, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or experimental animals; observational and analytical methods), main findings (give specific data and their statistical significance, if possible), and the principal conclusions. The summary should be one continuous paragraph which highlights the importance of the findings outlined in the study.
You will also be asked within the online submission system to outline your key results and their importance in 3-5 short bullet points
Original Papers: The text of articles should normally be divided into sections with the headings Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. Papers should be only as long as they need to be, and preferably between 2000 and 4000 words. Please keep the number of references below 40.
Short Reports: The journal also publishes Short Reports in the form of a continuous narrative with the only separate section being the Summary. These short reports are not published more rapidly but are intended to be the vehicles for valuable but limited or preliminary observations. The number of words should be below 3000, and we would normally expect not more than one table or figure, and up to 10 references.
Review Articles: The journal welcomes Review Articles, Editorials and leading articles on recent developments, controversial issues and other aspects of infectious disease epidemiology. These are usually commissioned, but unsolicited papers are also welcomed. Preliminary discussion by email or letter with the Editor-in-Chief is advised. All papers in this category, including those commissioned, are peer reviewed.
Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses
For authors wishing to submit papers on systematic reviews and meta-analyses to Epidemiology and Infection, please follow the PRISMA guidelines. These are described on their website:
http://www.prisma-statement.org. Epidemiology and Infection also subscribes to the STROBE initiative for observational studies www.strobe-statement.org.
Those intending to submit a review or meta-analysis are invited to discuss objectives and content with the Editor-in-Chief before submission.
Letters to the Editor: Epidemiology and Infection only accepts letters related to papers published by the journal. These should be sent, as a letter, to the Editor-in-Chief (email@example.com) stating clearly the paper to which the letter applies. All letters are sent to the corresponding author of the original paper for response or comment; no further correspondence is generally allowed. If possible, the letter should be sent as soon as possible after electronic publication of the paper in question. Epidemiology and Infection will then endeavour to publish the paper, letter and response together in the same online issue. The Editor’s decision on whether or not to publish the correspondence is final.
General: All manuscripts should be submitted in English using English spellings. Manuscripts written by those whose primary language is not English should be edited carefully for language prior to submission. Authors who are not fluent in written English are encouraged to seek assistance in this regard before submitting their manuscripts. The journal aims to communicate and educate across disciplines, and many of its readers do not have English as their first language, so plain language is always preferred.
You may acknowledge individuals or organisations that provided advice, support (non-financial). Formal financial support and funding should be listed in the following section.
Please provide details of the sources of financial support for all authors, including grant numbers. For example,
“This work was supported by the Medical Research Council (grant number XXXXXXX)”. Multiple grant numbers should be separated by a comma and space, and where research was funded by more than one agency the different agencies should be separated by a semi-colon, with “and” before the final funder. Grants held by different authors should be identified as belonging to individual authors by the authors’ initials. For example, “This work was supported by the Wellcome Trust (A.B., grant numbers XXXX, YYYY), (C.D., grant number ZZZZ); the Natural Environment Research Council (E.F., grant number FFFF); and the National Institutes of Health (A.B., grant number GGGG), (E.F., grant number HHHH)”. Where no specific funding has been provided for research, please provide the following statement: “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.”
Please provide details of all known financial, professional and personal relationships with the potential to bias the work. Where no known conflicts of interest exist, please include the following statement: “None.”
Where research involves human and/or animal experimentation, the following statements should be included (as applicable): “The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional committees on human experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2008.” and “The authors assert that all procedures contributing to this work comply with the ethical standards of the relevant national and institutional guides on the care and use of laboratory animals.”
Spelling: It is the convention of Epidemiology and Infection to use ‘-ize’, and not ‘-ise’, e.g. characterize, immunize. The following spelling is used for words that frequently appear:
programme (but program for computer software), diarrhoea, faeces, aetiology, centre, paediatric, titre, litre, analyse, epidemiological (not epidemiologic), and similarly, microbiological, serological, etc. Upper case in first letter and italics is used only for a microorganism when it is speciated e.g. Campylobacter sp. or Campylobacter jejuni, not when otherwise used, e.g. ‘…following culture, campylobacter were isolated ……’
Dates: The format ‘26 January 1993’ is used, and year durations are not elided, e.g. ‘1993–1996’ not ‘1993–6’.
Percentages: Use ‘per cent’ when following a figure that is spelt (e.g. at start of sentence ‘Twelve per cent ….’) and % when in text following numeral (e.g. 12%).
Numerals: Use numerals for figures over 10, and spell out figures one to ten. Note, however, that all time durations are numerals e.g. 1 h, 3 days, 5 weeks (unless beginning a sentence). Numerals are also used when numbers appear closely together, e.g. ‘3 of 11, 6 of 9, 14 of 21’, as this convention improves the visual appearance of the text. Thousands and millions are not separated by commas e.g. ‘1200000’ not ’1,200,000’, but will be separated by half spaces during printing. Avoid beginning a sentence with numbers over ten or decimal/fraction numbers. Spell out any numbers that are used to begin a sentence, e.g. Five…: Nineteen…; One hundred and twenty-four…
Number references consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables and legends by Arabic numerals in square brackets (not superscript numbers). References cited only in tables or in legends to figures should be numbered in accordance with a sequence established by the first identification in the text of the particular table or illustration.
Use the style of the examples below, which are based on the formats used by the US National Library of Medicine in Index Medicus. The titles of journals should be spelled out in full. Consult List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus, published annually as a separate publication by the library and as a list in the January issue of Index Medicus.
Try to avoid using abstracts as references; ‘unpublished observations’ and ‘personal communications’ may not be used as references, although references to written, not oral, communications may be inserted (in parentheses) in the text. Include among the references papers accepted but not yet published, or published online only [supply Digital Object Identifier (doi) reference, if known]; designate the journal and add ‘(in press)’. Information from manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted should be cited in the text as ‘unpublished observations’.
The references must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents.
Do not insert full stops after author initials, commas after author surnames, or ‘and’ between last two authors.
Only use upper case first letters for the first word of the title of a paper or when a proper noun, e.g. ‘Isolation from rabbits trapped in Australia’, not ‘Isolation from Rabbits Trapped in Australia’ (even if this was the presentation in the journal of source).
Do not include issue number of a journal after volume e.g. ‘1994; 10: 183–188.’ not ‘1994; 10 (12): 183–188’.
Do not elide page numbers e.g. ‘183–188; 11–18’ not ‘183–8; 11–8’.
Ensure when giving a reference to a book that the town/city/country of the publisher is given in addition to their name.
Examples of correct forms of references are given below.
(1) Standard journal article –
List all authors when three or fewer; when four or more, list only first author and add et al.
Wrensch M, et al. History of chickenpox and shingles and prevalence of antibodies to varicella-zoster virus and three other herpesviruses among adults with glioma and controls. American Journal of Epidemiology 2005; 161: 929–938. Example of an article published online (but not yet in a printed issue):
Kiely RA, et al. Emergence of group B Streptococcus serotype IV in women of child-bearing age in Ireland. Epidemiology and Infection. Published online: 7 June 2010. doi:10.1017/S0950268810001275.
(2) Corporate author
National Institutes of Health. Consensus Development Conference Statement. Management of hepatitis C: 2002, 10–12 June 2002. Hepatology 2002; 36: S3–S20.
(3) No author given
Anon. Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas [Editorial]. British Medical Journal 1981; 283: 628.
(4) Journal supplement
Mastri AR. Neuropathy of diabetic neurogenic bladder. Annals of Internal Medicine 1980; 92 : 316–318.
Frumin AM, Nussbaum J, Esposito M. Functional asplenia: demonstration of splenic activity by bone marrow scan [Abstract]. Blood 1979; 54 (Suppl. 1): 26a.
(5) Journal paginated by issue
Seaman WB. The case of the pancreatic pseudocyst. Hospital Practice 1981; 16: 24–25.
Books and other monographs
(6) Personal author(s)
Eisen HN. Immunology: An Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Principles of the Immune Response, 5th edn. New York: Harper and Row, 1974, pp. 406.
(7) Editor, compiler, chairman as author
Dausset J, Colombani J (eds). Histocompatibility Testing 1972. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, 1973, pp. 12–18.
(8) Chapter in book
Weinstein L, Swartz MN. Pathogenic properties of invading microorganisms. In: Sodeman Jr. WA, Sodeman WA, eds. Pathologic Physiology: Mechanisms of Disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1974, pp. 457–472.
(9) Published proceedings paper
Dupont B. Bone marrow transplantation in severe combined immuno-deficiency with an unrelated MLC compatible donor. In: White HJ, Smith R, eds. Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the International Society for Experimental Hematology. Houston: International Society for Experimental Hematology, 1974, pp. 44–46.
(10) Monograph in a series
Hunninghake GW, et al. The human alveolar macrophage. In: Harris CC, ed. Cultured Human Cells and Tissues in Biomedical Research. New York: Academic Press, 1980, pp. 54–56. (Stoner GD, ed. Methods and Perspectives in Cell Biology, vol. 1.)
(11) Agency publication
Ranofsky AL. Surgical operations in short-stay hospitals: United States – 1975. Hyattsville, MD, USA: National Center for Health Statistics, 1978; DHEW publication no (PHS) 78–1785. (Vital and health statistics; series 13; no. 34.)
(12) Dissertation or thesis
Cairns RB, Infrared spectroscopic studies of solid oxygen (dissertation). Berkeley, CA, USA: University of California, 1965, 156 pp.
(13) Newspaper article
Shaffer RA. Advances in chemistry are starting to unlock mysteries of the brain: discoveries could help cure alcoholism and insomnia, explain mental illness. How the messengers work. Wall Street Journal 1977; 12 August.
(14) Magazine article
Roueche B. Annals of medicine: the Santa Claus culture. The New Yorker 1971; 4 September: pp. 66–81.
(15) Citation of databases or other sources from the internet
These should be included in the numbered list of References at the end of the article in the following format:
Full name of database [www address(URL)]. Date accessed.
See example below:
1. Swiss Life Sciences (SLS) database (http://www.swisslifesciences.com/swisslifesciences/db/). Accessed 7 April 2005.
The text should contain a shortened version of the database title (for example, an acronym) and a numerical indicator linking it to the Reference section. See example below:
…details can be found in the SLS database . More information is…
Type each table double spaced on a separate sheet. Tables should be placed in the main manuscript file at the end of the document, not within the main text. Do not submit tables as pictures or photographs. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all non-standard abbreviations that are used in each table. Identify statistical measures of variations such as standard deviation, standard error of the mean. Do not use internal horizontal or vertical rules. Be sure that each table is cited in the text. If you use data from another published or unpublished source obtain permission and acknowledge fully.
You can find further information about how to prepare your figures at the following link: http://www.journals.cambridge.org/artworkguide.
Figures should be prepared electronically, or scanned from high-quality originals: freehand or typewritten lettering is unacceptable. Letters, numbers and symbols should be clear and even throughout and of sufficient size so that when reduced for publication each item will still be legible. 9pt Arial font is ideal. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations, not on the illustrations themselves.
At initial submission, figures may be submitted as TIF, JPG, GIF, EPS or PNG files. Please note that figures saved as PDF, PPT and DOC files are not accepted. When you submit your revised manuscript, figures should be submitted as TIF or EPS files at 100% of final size and at appropriate resolution (1000–1200 dpi for line drawings, 300 dpi for photographs and halftone images, and at least 600dpi for combination figures). Other file formats or figures ‘pasted’ into Word files are not accepted. Colour figures should be saved in CMYK (not RGB, except for Supplementary files).
Photomicrographs must have internal scale markers. Symbols, arrows or letters used in the photomicrographs should contrast with the background. If composite or multiple electronmicrographs, electrophoresis patterns, etc. are to be included, authors are requested to ensure that all the original photographic plates are of matched densities and contrast. If photographs of persons are used either the subjects must not be identifiable or their pictures must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph. Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. If a figure has been published, acknowledge the original source and submit written permission from the copyright holder to reproduce the material. Permission is required irrespective of authorship or publisher, except for documents in the public domain. Figures such as pie charts, histograms and bar charts that are drawn in three dimensions without three-dimensional graph axes are not accepted. Only figures in which the axes have three dimensions will be considered for publication in three dimensions.
Colour figures will be published online free of charge
Type legends for illustrations double spaced, starting on a separate page, with arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. When symbols, arrows, numbers or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend. Explain the internal scale and identify method of staining in photomicrographs. If your figure contains third-party copyrighted material, you should include a credit in your figure caption.
Units of measurement
Measurements of length, height, weight and volume should be reported in metric units (metre, kilogram, litre) or their decimal multiples. The terms kilobases and base pairs (abbreviations kb and bp) should be used when referring to nucleic acid sequences and the molecular mass of proteins and peptides should be given in kilodaltons (kDa). Temperatures should be given in degrees Celsius. Blood pressures should be given in millimetres of mercury (mmHg). All haematological and clinical chemistry measurements should be reported in the metric svstem in terms of the International System of Units (SI). Editors may request that alternative or non-SI units be added by the authors before publication.
Abbreviations and symbols
Use only standard abbreviations. Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract. The full term for which an abbreviation stands should precede its first use in the text unless it is a standard unit of measurement. Do not use ampersands (&) unless part of a formal name, e.g. Procter & Gamble.
The online platform gives authors the opportunity to include material that it would be impossible or impractical to include in the printed version, for example, extensive datasets, complex mathematical calculations, 3D-structures, 3D-images or video files. You must upload Supplementary Material at the same time as you submit your manuscript, and you must give details in your cover letter of all supplementary files uploaded. If accepted, this material will be placed in the Cambridge University Press Supplementary Material data archive, and it will be accessible online. Authors should ensure that they mention within their article that Supplementary Material is available on the Cambridge Journals Online website.
At the head of the first page of your Supplementary Material file, type ‘Epidemiology and Infection’, the article title, the names of the authors, the heading ‘Supplementary Material’, and then the relevant inclusions. Please note that (unlike figures included in the printed article) captions or legends should be included for all figures and tables in Supplementary Material. You should number figures or tables with the prefix ‘S’, e.g. Supplementary Figure S1, Supplementary Table S1. Colour images for online publication as Supplementary Material must be saved in RGB format (not CMYK).
Although Supplementary Material is peer reviewed, it is not checked, copyedited or typeset after acceptance and it is loaded onto the journal’s website exactly as supplied. You should check your Supplementary Material carefully to ensure that it adheres to journal styles. Corrections cannot be made to the Supplementary Material after acceptance of the manuscript. Please bear this in mind when deciding what content to include as Supplementary Material.
Author Language Services
Cambridge recommends that authors have their manuscripts checked by an English language native speaker before submission; this will ensure that submissions are judged at peer review exclusively on academic merit. We list a number of third-party services specialising in language editing and / or translation, and suggest that authors contact as appropriate. Use of any of these services is voluntary, and at the author's own expense.