Relationship between psychiatric status and frontal–subcortical systems in HIV-infected individuals
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults frequently evidence both neurocognitive and psychiatric dysfunction. It was hypothesized that apathy and irritability, but not anxiety and depression, are related to HIV effects on frontal–subcortical systems. This hypothesis was evaluated by determining the degree to which these psychiatric features are associated with neurocognitive functioning that is dependent upon frontal–subcortical circuitry and, therefore, thought to be sensitive to the central nervous system effects of HIV. Rating scales assessing irritability, apathy, depression, and anxiety and a dual-task paradigm were administered to 189 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) and 53 HIV-seronegative participants. Deficits in dual-task performance and greater anxiety, depression, apathy, and irritability were observed in HIV+ participants. Simultaneous multivariate regression and communality analyses revealed that only apathy and irritability were associated with dual-task performance in HIV+ participants. Thus, these findings suggest that apathy and irritability, but not depression and anxiety, are likely associated with the effects of HIV on frontal–subcortical circuitry. (JINS, 2007, 13, 549–554.)(Received March 28 2006)
(Revised November 20 2006)
(Accepted November 21 2006)
Key Words: Human immunodeficiency virus; Apathy; Irritability; Depression; Anxiety; Cognition.
c1 Correspondence and reprint requests to: Michael A. Cole, Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry & Biobehavioral Sciences, UCLA Neuropsychiatric Institute, 760 Westwood Plaza, C8-746, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org