a1 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, People’s Republic of China
a2 APCNS Centre of Nutrition and Food Safety, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China
Objective We aimed to use the meta-analysis method to assess the relationship between coffee drinking and all-cause mortality.
Design Categorical and dose–response meta-analyses were conducted using random-effects models.
Setting We systematically searched and identified eligible literature in the PubMed and Scopus databases.
Subjects Seventeen studies including 1 054 571 participants and 131 212 death events from all causes were included in the present study.
Results Seventeen studies were included and evaluated in the meta-analysis. A U-shaped dose–response relationship was found between coffee consumption and all-cause mortality (P for non-linearity <0·001). Compared with non/occasional coffee drinkers, the relative risks for all-cause mortality were 0·89 (95 % CI 0·85, 0·93) for 1–<3 cups/d, 0·87 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·91) for 3–<5 cups/d and 0·90 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·94) for ≥5 cups/d, and the relationship was more marked in females than in males.
Conclusions The present meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies indicated that light to moderate coffee intake is associated with a reduced risk of death from all causes, particularly in women.
(Received February 09 2014)
(Revised June 06 2014)
(Accepted June 12 2014)
(Online publication August 04 2014)