Epidemiology and Infection

Original Papers

Foodborne/gastrointestinal infections

Cholera in the United States, 2001–2011: a reflection of patterns of global epidemiology and travel

A. LOHARIKARa1 c1, A. E. NEWTONa2, S. STROIKAa3, M. FREEMANa3, K. D. GREENEa3, M. B. PARSONSa3, C. BOPPa3, D. TALKINGTONa3, E. D. MINTZa4 and B. E. MAHONa2

a1 Office of Workforce and Career Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA

a2 Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA

a3 Enteric Diseases Laboratory Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA

a4 Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA

SUMMARY

US cholera surveillance offers insight into global and domestic trends. Between 2001 and 2011, 111 cases were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cholera was associated with international travel in 90 (81%) patients and was domestically acquired in 20 (18%) patients; for one patient, information was not available. From January 2001 to October 2010, the 42 (47%) travel-associated cases were associated with travel to Asia. In October 2010, a cholera epidemic started in Haiti, soon spreading to the Dominican Republic (Hispaniola). From then to December 2011, 40 (83%) of the 48 travel-associated cases were associated with travel to Hispaniola. Of 20 patients who acquired cholera domestically, 17 (85%) reported seafood consumption; 10 (59%) ate seafood from the US Gulf Coast. In summary, an increase in travel-associated US cholera cases was associated with epidemic cholera in Hispaniola in 2010–2011. Travel to Asia and consumption of Gulf Coast seafood remained important sources of US cholera cases.

(Received November 14 2013)

(Revised March 29 2014)

(Accepted April 22 2014)

(Online publication May 28 2014)

Key words

  • Cholera;
  • diarrhoeal disease;
  • Haiti;
  • Hispaniola

Correspondence

c1 Author for correspondence: Dr A. Loharikar, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA. (Email: anagha.loharikar@gmail.com)

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