Epidemiology and Infection

Original Papers

Gastrointestinal infection and food poisoning

Preponderance of toxigenic Escherichia coli in stool pathogens correlates with toxin detection in accessible drinking-water sources

H. IGBOKWEa1a2, S. BHATTACHARYYAa3, S. GRADUSa3, M. KHUBBARa3, D. GRISWOLDa3, J. NAVIDADa3, C. IGWILOa2, D. MASSON-MEYERSa1 and A. A. AZENABORa1 c1

a1 Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA

a2 Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, University of Lagos, Nigeria

a3 City of Milwaukee Health Department Laboratories, Milwaukee, WI, USA

SUMMARY

Since early detection of pathogens and their virulence factors contribute to intervention and control strategies, we assessed the enteropathogens in diarrhoea disease and investigated the link between toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli from stool and drinking-water sources; and determined the expression of toxin genes by antibiotic-resistant E. coli in Lagos, Nigeria. This was compared with isolates from diarrhoeal stool and water from Wisconsin, USA. The new Luminex xTAG GPP (Gastroplex) technique and conventional real-time PCR were used to profile enteric pathogens and E. coli toxin gene isolates, respectively. Results showed the pathogen profile of stool and indicated a relationship between E. coli toxin genes in water and stool from Lagos which was absent in Wisconsin isolates. The Gastroplex technique was efficient for multiple enteric pathogens and toxin gene detection. The co-existence of antibiotic resistance with enteroinvasive E. coli toxin genes suggests an additional prognostic burden on patients.

(Received August 23 2013)

(Revised November 14 2013)

(Accepted April 09 2014)

(Online publication May 01 2014)

Key words

  • Chronic diarrhoea;
  • Escherichia coli toxins;
  • multiplex analysis;
  • stool pathogens;
  • water sources

Correspondence

c1 Author for correspondence: Dr A. A. Azenabor, Enderis Hall, Room 459, University of Wisconsin, 2400 E. Hartford Avenue, Milwaukee, WI 53211, USA. (Email: aazenabo@uwm.edu)

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