The Journal of Agricultural Science




CROPS AND SOILS

Effect of variety, irrigation regime and planting date on depth, rate, duration and density of root growth in the potato (Solanum tuberosum) crop


M. A.  STALHAM  a1 c1 and E. J.  ALLEN 
a1 Cambridge University Farm, Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 0LH, UK

Abstract

Experiments were conducted over the period 1987–94 at Cambridge University Farm and two other sites to examine the effect of various husbandry factors, particularly variety and irrigation regime, on rate, depth and density of rooting in potatoes. Maximum rooting depth ranged from 59 to 140 cm, indicating that potatoes can root to considerable depths and thereby have access to large volumes of water to satisfy the potential demand for water created by the atmospheric conditions and the size of the canopy. Root extension vertically through the soil profile was best described as a three-phase process: an initial rapid period lasting 3–5 weeks with growth rates c. 1·2 cm/day, a second period of slower growth (c. 0·8 cm/day), followed by cessation of root extension for the rest of the life of the crop. Variety had a major influence on the ultimate depth of rooting, primarily owing to variations in the length of the different periods of rooting rather than the rate in each period. It was observed that changes in the rate, or the cessation of root penetration were always preceded 4–9 days earlier by a change in the rate, or cessation, of leaf appearance. This feature should make it possible to characterize the duration of rooting of varieties through measurement of leaf emergence. Varieties which ceased leaf production early, such as Atlantic, were found to have a duration of root growth of c. 60 days, with Cara rooting for c. 30 days longer. Maximal total root length (TRL) and root length density (RLD) in the experiments reported were 16·9 km/m2 and 5·5 cm/cm3, respectively, similar to those found previously in potatoes and crops such as sugar beet, but considerably greater than many other vegetables. Rooting density decreased with depth, but the root systems were not as surface-oriented as many other studies have shown. When TRL was close to its maximum, the vertical distribution of RLD showed that between 40 and 73% was confined to the upper 30 cm, with irrigated crops possessing a greater proportion of their roots in the plough layer. Despite being planted in rows 70–91 cm apart, rooting systems were homogeneously distributed in a horizontal direction by c. 35 days after emergence, at which time the roots had reached a depth of c. 50 cm. Therefore, apart from a short period after emergence, the potato crop is capable of accessing considerable volumes of soil from which to extract water and nutrients. Ensuring that soil conditions are conducive to maximal rates of root growth should be the target for growers, since this will lead to a more efficient use of soil water and irrigation.

(Received May 3 2001)


Correspondence:
c1 To whom all correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: m.stalham@farm.cam.ac.uk


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