a1 Division of Infectious Disease Control, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
a2 European Programme for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden
For decades, vaccination with the 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV23) has been available for risk groups aged ≥2 years to prevent invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Recently, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV13) has been licensed for use in all age groups. PCV13 may induce better protection than PPV23 because of different immunogenic properties. This called for a revision of vaccine recommendations for risk groups. We therefore reviewed literature on risk groups for IPD, and effectiveness and safety of pneumococcal vaccines and supplemented that with information from public health institutes, expert consultations and data on IPD epidemiology. We included 187 articles. We discuss the implications of the heterogenic vulnerability for IPD within and between risk groups, large indirect effects of childhood immunization, and limited knowledge on additional clinical benefits of PCV13 in combination with PPV23 for the Norwegian recommendations. These are now step-wise and consider the need for vaccination, choice of pneumococcal vaccines, and re-vaccination interval by risk group.
(Received December 06 2013)
(Revised May 12 2014)
(Accepted May 25 2014)
(Online publication June 16 2014)