Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

Research Articles

Task Importance Affects Event-Based Prospective Memory Performance in Adults with HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders and HIV-Infected Young Adults with Problematic Substance Use

Steven Paul Woodsa1a2 c1, Katie L. Doylea3, Erin E. Morgana1, Sylvie Naar-Kinga4, Angulique Y. Outlawa4, Sharon L. Nicholsa5 and Shayne Lofta2

a1 Department of Psychiatry, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California

a2 School of Psychology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia

a3 Joint Doctoral Program in Clinical Psychology, San Diego State University and University of California-San Diego, San Diego, California

a4 Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan

a5 Department of Neurosciences, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California

Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of task importance on event-based prospective memory (PM) in separate samples of adults with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) and HIV-infected young adults with substance use disorders (SUD). All participants completed three conditions of an ongoing lexical decision task: (1) without PM task requirements; (2) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the ongoing task; and (3) with PM task requirements that emphasized the importance of the PM task. In both experiments, all HIV+ groups showed the expected increase in response costs to the ongoing task when the PM task’s importance was emphasized. In Experiment 1, individuals with HAND showed significantly lower PM accuracy as compared to HIV+ subjects without HAND when the importance of the ongoing task was emphasized, but improved significantly and no longer differed from HIV+ subjects without HAND when the PM task was emphasized. A similar pattern of findings emerged in Experiment 2, whereby HIV+ young adults with SUD (especially cannabis) showed significant improvements in PM accuracy when the PM task was emphasized. Findings suggest that both HAND and SUD may increase the amount of cognitive attentional resources that need to be allocated to support PM performance in persons living with HIV infection. (JINS, 2014, 21, 1–11)

(Received January 23 2014)

(Revised April 01 2014)

(Accepted April 10 2014)

(Online publication May 16 2014)

Keywords

  • Infectious disease;
  • Episodic memory;
  • AIDS dementia complex;
  • Marijuana abuse;
  • Attention;
  • Substance-related disorders

Correspondence

c1 Correspondence and reprint requests to: Steven Paul Woods, Department of Psychiatry (8231), University of California-San Diego, 220 Dickinson Street, Suite B, San Diego, CA, 92103. E-mail: spwoods@ucsd.edu

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