a1 Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
a2 Ministry of Higher Education, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
a3 Schools of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Information Technology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
a4 Centre for Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
a5 School of Biomedical Sciences and Pharmacy, 305C Medical Sciences Building, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308, Australia
Objective To investigate the association between macronutrient intake and type 2 diabetes risk in middle-aged Australian women.
Design A prospective cohort study, with 6 years (2002–2007) of follow up. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Relative risks with 95 % confidence intervals were used to examine risk associations.
Setting Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health, Australia.
Subjects Australian women (n 8370) from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health aged 45–50 years and free of type 2 diabetes at baseline.
Results After 6 years of follow-up, 311 women developed type 2 diabetes. After adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle and other dietary risk factors, MUFA, total n-3 PUFA, α-linolenic acid and total n-6 PUFA intakes were positively associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The relative risks for type 2 diabetes for the highest compared with the lowest quintiles were 1·64 (95 % CI 1·06, 2·54), P = 0·04 for MUFA; 1·55 (95 % CI 1·03, 2·32), P = 0·01 for n-3 PUFA; 1·84 (95 % CI 1·25, 2·71), P < 0·01 for α-linolenic acid; and 1·60 (95 % CI 1·03, 2·48), P = 0·04 for n-6 PUFA. Other dietary macronutrients were not significantly associated with diabetes risk.
Conclusions The data indicate that consumption of MUFA, n-3 PUFA and n-6 PUFA may influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes in women.
(Received January 17 2013)
(Revised June 05 2013)
(Accepted June 13 2013)
(Online publication July 18 2013)