British Journal of Nutrition

Research Article

Does regular walnut consumption lead to weight gain?

Joan Sabatéa1 c1, Zaida Cordero-MacIntyrea1, Gina Siapcoa1, Setareh Torabiana1 and Ella Haddada1

a1 Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda CA 92350, USA


Studies consistently show the beneficial effects of eating nuts, but as high-energy foods, their regular consumption may lead to weight gain. We tested if daily consumption of walnuts (approximately 12% energy intake) for 6 months would modify body weight and body composition in free-living subjects. Ninety participants in a 12-month randomized cross-over trial were instructed to eat an allotted amount of walnuts (28–56g) during the walnut-supplemented diet and not to eat them during the control diet, with no further instruction. Subjects were unaware that body weight was the main outcome. Dietary compliance was about 95% and mean daily walnut consumption was 35g during the walnut-supplemented diet. The walnut-supplemented diet resulted in greater daily energy intake (557kJ (133kcal)), which should theoretically have led to a weight gain of 3·1kg over the 6-month period. For all participants, walnut supplementation increased weight (0·4 (se 0·1) kg), BMI (0·2 (se 0·1) kg/m2), fat mass (0·2 (se 0·1) kg) and lean mass (0·2 (se 0·1) kg). But, after adjusting for energy differences between the control and walnut-supplemented diets, no significant differences were observed in body weight or body composition parameters, except for BMI (0·1 (se 0·1) kg/m2). The weight gain from incorporating walnuts into the diet (control→walnut sequence) was less than the weight loss from withdrawing walnuts from the diet (walnut→control sequence). Our findings show that regular walnut intake resulted in weight gain much lower than expected and which became non-significant after controlling for differences in energy intake.

(Received November 08 2004)

(Revised May 10 2005)

(Accepted June 30 2005)


c1 *Corresponding author: Dr Joan Sabaté, fax +1 909 558 4095, email