a1 Department of Food Science and Microbiology, Division of Human Nutrition, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Recent findings suggest that Western diets based on highly palatable foods are likely to be much less satiating than more traditional diets or those typical of less developed countries. In particular, some alternative crops (for example, buckwheat, oat, barley, spelt, rye, quinoa, amaranth) seem to be of great nutritional interest and to represent important recipes for healthier and typical regional foods. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect on subsequent food intake and feelings of satiety of alternative oat bread, oat and buckwheat pasta and of quinoa as compared with their wheat counterparts and rice, respectively. Three different experiments (one specific for each alternative crop food) were conducted, all with a within-subjects design. The preloading paradigm strategy was used. Results showed that preload energy level influenced total energy intake (preload plus ad libitum test meal intake), larger preloads inducing more eating than smaller preloads. No effect of formulation was observed on energy intake, as the consumption of alternative crop formulations did not decrease the total energy intake as compared with that of the counterparts. Satiating efficiency indices (SEI) for alternative crop foods were higher with respect to traditional cereal foods. In particular, white bread was the least satisfying food (SEI =0·2) and the different time of consumption (for lunch or as a snack) did not affect energy intake. In conclusion, oat or buckwheat formulations, and also quinoa, may be exploited for their potential impact on eating behaviour, particularly considering they are good sources of functional substances.
(Received January 17 2005)
(Revised June 10 2005)
(Accepted July 09 2005)