British Journal of Nutrition

Research Article

Determinants of plasma dihydrophylloquinone in men and women

Arja T. Erkkiläa1a2a3, Alice H. Lichtensteina1, Paul F. Jacquesa4, Frank B. Hua5, Peter W. F. Wilsona6 and Sarah L. Bootha2 c1

a1 Cardiovascular Nutrition Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA

a2 Vitamin K Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA

a3 Department of Clinical Nutrition, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland

a4 Epidemiology Program, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, 711 Washington Street, Boston, MA 02111, USA

a5 Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 and Channing Laboratory, Boston, MA 02115, USA

a6 Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425 and the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute's Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA 01701, USA

Abstract

Commercial hydrogenation results in the formation of trans fatty acids. An unintended consequence of the hydrogenation process is conversion of phylloquinone (vitamin K1) to dihydrophylloquinone. Plasma dihydrophylloquinone concentrations have yet to be characterized in population-based studies. Dietary determinants of plasma dihydrophylloquinone were estimated using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire in 803 men and 913 women in the Framingham Offspring Study. Geometric mean dihydrophylloquinone intake was 21·3 (95 % CI 20·4, 22·3) μg/d in men and 19·4 (95 % CI 18·5, 20·2) μg/d in women. Detectable (>0·05 nmol/l) plasma dihydrophylloquinone concentrations were measured in 41 % and 30 % of men and women, respectively. The multivariate odds ratio (OR) of detectable plasma dihydrophylloquinone from the lowest to the highest quartile category of dihydrophylloquinone intake were 1 (referent), 1·13 (95 % CI 0·83, 1·53), 1·66 (95 % CI 1·21, 2·26) and 1·84 (95 % CI 1·31, 2·58), P for trend <0·001, adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, triacylglycerols, season and energy intake. Higher trans fatty acid intake was associated with higher multivariate OR for detectable plasma dihydrophylloquinone (OR comparing extreme quartiles 2·41 (95 % CI 1·59, 3·64), P for trend <0·001). There were limitations in the use of plasma dihydrophylloquinone, evident in the high proportion of the population that had non-detectable dihydrophylloquinone concentrations. Despite this caveat, higher plasma dihydrophylloquinone was associated with higher dihydrophylloquinone intake and higher trans fatty acid intake.

(Received May 28 2004)

(Revised December 03 2004)

(Accepted December 08 2004)

Correspondence:

c1 *Corresponding author: Dr Sarah L. Booth, fax +1 617 556 3149, email sarah.booth@tufts.edu

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