a1 Durham University, Abbey House, Palace Green, Durham, DH1 3RS, UK. email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
a2 Tyndale University College, 25 Ballyconnor Court, Toronto, ON M2M 4B3, Canada. email: email@example.com.
The perfect tense-form verb ἀναβέβηκεν in John 3.13 is usually interpreted in light of traditional verb theory, as a ‘past action with present results’. This interpretation introduces an apparent problematic chronology in that the Son of Man ascends before descending; however, recent developments in Greek grammar, particularly verbal aspect theory, provide a viable solution to this grammatical ‘problem’ and indicate that the Son of Man's descent precedes his ascent.
* We are grateful to Joseph R. Dodson for commenting on an earlier draft of this note and for, in a certain sense, instigating its genesis.