The Journal of Symbolic Logic

Research Article

Constructible models of subsystems of ZF

Richard Gostanian

California State University, Northridge, California 91330


One of the main results of Gödel [4] and [5] is that, if M is a transitive set such that 〈M, Є 〉 is a model of ZF (Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory) and α is the least ordinal not in M, then 〈L α, Є 〉 is also a model of ZF.

In this note we shall use the Jensen uniformisation theorem to show that results analogous to the above hold for certain subsystems of ZF. The subsystems we have in mind are those that are formed by restricting the formulas in the separation and replacement axioms to various levels of the Levy hierarchy.

This is all done in §1. In §2 we proceed to establish the exact order relationships which hold among the ordinals of the minimal models of some of the systems discussed in §1. Although the proofs of these latter results will not require any use of the uniformisation theorem, we will find it convenient to use some of the more elementary results and techniques from Jensen's fine-structural theory of L. We thus provide a brief review of the pertinent parts of Jensen's works in §0, where a list of general preliminaries is also furnished.

We remark that some of the techniques which we use in the present paper have been used by us previously in [6] to prove various results about β-models of analysis. Since β-models for analysis are analogous to transitive models for set theory, this is not surprising.

(Received March 26 1976)

(Revised June 20 1979)