The Journal of Symbolic Logic

Research Article

Non Σ n axiomatizable almost strongly minimal theories

David Marker

Department of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60680

Recall that a theory is said to be almost strongly minimal if in every model every element is in the algebraic closure of a strongly minimal set. In 1970 Hodges and Macintyre conjectured that there is a natural number n such that every ℵ0-categorical almost strongly minimal theory is Σ n axiomatizable. Recently Ahlbrandt and Baldwin [A-B] proved that if T is ℵ0-categorical and almost strongly minimal, then T is Σ n axiomatizable for some n. This result also follows from Ahlbrandt and Ziegler's results on quasifinite axiomatizability [A-Z]. In this paper we will refute Hodges and Macintyre's conjecture by showing that for each n there is an ℵ0-categorical almost strongly minimal theory which is not Σ n axiomatizable.

Before we begin we should note that in all these examples the complexity of the theory arises from the complexity of the definition of the strongly minimal set. It is still open whether the conjecture is true if we allow a predicate symbol for the strongly minimal set.

We will prove the following result.

Theorem. For every n there is an almost strongly minimal ℵ0-categorical theory T with models M and N such that N is Σn elementary but not Σn + 1 elementary.

To show that these theories yield counterexamples to the conjecture we apply the following result of Chang [C].

Theorem. If T is a Σn axiomatizable theory categorical in some infinite power, M and N are models of T and N is a Σn elementary extension of M, then N is an elementary extension of M.

(Received February 02 1988)

(Revised April 25 1988)