The Journal of Symbolic Logic

Research Article

Fibred semantics and the weaving of logics. Part 1: Modal and intuitionistic logics

D. M. Gabbay

Department of Computing, Imperial College of Science, Technology & Medicine, 180 Queen's Gate, London SW1 2BZ, England, UK, E-mail:


This is Part 1 of a paper on fibred semantics and combination of logics. It aims to present a methodology for combining arbitrary logical systems L i , iI, to form a new system L I . The methodology ‘fibres’ the semantics i of L i into a semantics for LI , and ‘weaves’ the proof theory (axiomatics) of L i into a proof system of L I . There are various ways of doing this, we distinguish by different names such as ‘fibring’, ‘dovetailing’ etc, yielding different systems, denoted by etc. Once the logics are ‘weaved’, further ‘interaction’ axioms can be geometrically motivated and added, and then systematically studied. The methodology is general and is applied to modal and intuitionistic logics as well as to general algebraic logics. We obtain general results on bulk, in the sense that we develop standard combining techniques and refinements which can be applied to any family of initial logics to obtain further combined logics.

The main results of this paper is a construction for combining arbitrary, (possibly not normal) modal or intermediate logics, each complete for a class of (not necessarily frame) Kripke models. We show transfer of recursive axiomatisability, decidability and finite model property.

Some results on combining logics (normal modal extensions of K) have recently been introduced by Kracht and Wolter, Goranko and Passy and by Fine and Schurz as well as a multitude of special combined systems existing in the literature of the past 20–30 years. We hope our methodology will help organise the field systematically.

(Received July 08 1992)

(Revised March 08 1995)