Epidemiology and Infection

Original Papers


Hepatitis B and C co-infection in HIV/AIDS population in the state of Michigan

Z. A. BUTTa1a2 c1, M. J. WILKINSa3, E. HAMILTONa4, D. TODEMa1, J. C. GARDINERa1 and M. SAEEDa1a5

a1 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

a2 Health Services Academy, Opposite National Institute of Health (NIH), Chak Shahzad, Islamabad, Pakistan

a3 Program in Public Health, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA

a4 Body Art, Viral Hepatitis & HIV Analysis Unit, HIV/STD/VH/TB Epidemiology Section, Michigan Department of Community Health, Lansing, MI, USA

a5 Department of LACS, Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA


A retrospective cohort study was conducted from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009 in Michigan to estimate the prevalence of HIV and hepatitis co-infection and identify associated factors. The prevalence of co-infection was 4·1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·8–4·5]. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between co-infection and being male and: of Black race [odds ratio (OR) 2·0, 95% CI 1·2–3·6] and of Other race (OR 3·5, 95% CI 1·7–7·0) compared to Hispanic race. A significant association was found between co-infection and risk categories of blood products (OR 11·1, 95% CI 6·2–20·2), injecting drug user (IDU) (OR 3·6, 95% CI 2·7–4·8) and men who have sex with men/IDU (OR 3·4, 95% CI 2·4–4·9) in addition to two interactions; one between sex and current HIV status and the other between current HIV status and age at HIV diagnosis. Our results document the changing epidemiology of HIV–hepatitis co-infection which can guide preventive measures and interventions to reduce the prevalence of hepatitis co-infection.

(Received October 31 2012)

(Revised January 25 2013)

(Accepted February 10 2013)

(Online publication March 12 2013)

Key words

  • Co-infection;
  • hepatitis;
  • prevalence;
  • surveillance


c1 Author for correspondence: Dr Z. A. Butt, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, B601 West Fee Hall, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. (Email: zabutt3@yahoo.com)