Research Article

Nothing is perfect! Trouble-shooting in immunological and molecular studies of cestode infections


Department of Parasitology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa 078-8510, Japan


This personal review focuses on ways to approach and overcome some of the more common issues encountered while studying cestode zoonoses. The information presented here is based on the author's own experiences with immunological and molecular approaches for the detection of these parasites. There are many incongruities between immunological and molecular studies due to biased work. Nothing is perfect. Indirect approaches using either immunological, or even molecular tools, are limited without confirmation from direct evidence of infection. The dilemma of whether developing countries should develop their own diagnostic tests or rely on commercially available kits is also discussed.

(Received March 03 2013)

(Revised May 21 2013)

(Accepted May 24 2013)

(Online publication June 21 2013)

Key words

  • taeniases;
  • cysticercoses;
  • echinococcoses;
  • diagnosis