Social Policy and Society


Equal Opportunities and Diversity: Exploring the Relevance of Le Grand's Models of Service Provision

Martin Powella1, Nick Johnsa2 and Alison Greena3

a1 School of Social Policy, University of Birmingham E-mail:

a2 School of Social Science, Cardiff University E-mail:

a3 Graduate School, Glyndwr University E-mail:


The purpose of this article is to draw on Le Grand's (2007) model of service provision of ends and means (trust, targets, voice and choice) to critique the accepted frameworks for conceptualising the chronology of equal opportunities and diversity (EO&D) in the UK. We do this by reviewing the attempts to provide a chronological analysis before outlining and applying Le Grand's (2007) model. We find that the ‘eras’ of the chronologies give way to a much more complex and fluid picture. Moreover, focusing on ends and means highlights some major issues in the development of EO&D policy that needs to be addressed.


  • Le Grand;
  • equal opportunities;
  • diversity;
  • models of service provision;
  • ends;
  • means