Journal of Nutritional Science

  • Journal of Nutritional Science / Volume 2 / 2013, e24 (8 pages)
  • Copyright © The Author(s) 2013 The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence <>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
  • DOI: (About DOI), Published online: 24 July 2013

Human and Clinical Nutrition

Mood improvement in young adult males following supplementation with gold kiwifruit, a high-vitamin C food

Anitra C. Carra1 c1, Stephanie M. Bozoneta1, Juliet M. Pullara1 and Margreet C. M. Vissersa1

a1 Centre for Free Radical Research, Department of Pathology, University of Otago, Christchurch, PO Box 4345, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand


Enhanced intakes of fruit and vegetables have been associated with improved psychological well-being. We investigated the potential mood-enhancing effects of kiwifruit, a fruit rich in vitamin C and a number of other important micronutrients. Young adult males (n 35) were supplemented with either half or two kiwifruit/d for 6 weeks. Profile of Mood States questionnaires were completed at baseline and following the intervention. No effect on overall mood was observed in the half a kiwifruit/d group; however, a 35 % (P = 0·06) trend towards a decrease in total mood disturbance and a 32 % (P = 0·063) trend towards a decrease in depression were observed in the two kiwifruit/d group. Subgroup analysis indicated that participants with higher baseline mood disturbance exhibited a significant 38 % (P = 0·029) decrease in total mood disturbance, as well as a 38 % (P = 0·048) decrease in fatigue, 31 % (P = 0·024) increase in vigour and a 34 % (P = 0·075) trend towards a decrease in depression, following supplementation with two kiwifruit/d. There was no effect of two kiwifruit/d on the mood scores of participants with lower baseline mood disturbance. Dietary intakes and body status of specific micronutrients indicated a significant increase in the participants' vitamin C intakes and corresponding plasma levels of the vitamin. The results indicate that enhanced intake of kiwifruit by individuals with moderate mood disturbance can improve overall mood.

(Received September 04 2012)

(Revised April 15 2013)

(Accepted April 19 2013)

Key words

  • Ascorbate;
  • Plasma vitamin C;
  • Mood disturbance;
  • Dietary intake


  • high dose:two kiwifruit/d;
  • low dose:half a kiwifruit/d;
  • POMS:Profile of Mood States;
  • TMD:total mood disturbance


c1 Corresponding author: Dr Anitra Carr, fax + 64 3 378 6540, email