British Journal of Nutrition

Full Papers

Human and Clinical Nutrition

Acute and second-meal effects of peanuts on glycaemic response and appetite in obese women with high type 2 diabetes risk: a randomised cross-over clinical trial

Caio E. G. Reisa1 c1, Daniela N. Ribeiroa1, Neuza M. B. Costaa2, Josefina Bressana1, Rita C. G. Alfenasa1 and Richard D. Mattesa3

a1 Department of Nutrition and Health, Federal University of Viçosa, Avenida PH Rolfs, s/n, Viçosa, Minas Gerais 36570-000, Brazil

a2 CCA, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Brazil

a3 Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA


Nut consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of adding peanuts (whole or peanut butter) on first (0–240 min)- and second (240–490 min)-meal glucose metabolism and selected gut satiety hormone responses, appetite ratings and food intake in obese women with high T2DM risk. A group of fifteen women participated in a randomised cross-over clinical trial in which 42·5 g of whole peanuts without skins (WP), peanut butter (PB) or no peanuts (control) were added to a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations (0–490 min) of glucose, insulin, NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), appetitive sensations and food intake were assessed after breakfast treatments and a standard lunch. Postprandial NEFA incremental AUC (IAUC) (0–240 min) and glucose IAUC (240–490 min) responses were lower for the PB breakfast compared with the control breakfast. Insulin concentrations were higher at 120 and 370 min after the PB consumption than after the control consumption. Desire-to-eat ratings were lower, while PYY, GLP-1 and CCK concentrations were higher after the PB intake compared with the control intake. WP led to similar but non-significant effects. The addition of PB to breakfast moderated postprandial glucose and NEFA concentrations, enhanced gut satiety hormone secretion and reduced the desire to eat. The greater bioaccessibility of the lipid component in PB is probably responsible for the observed incremental post-ingestive responses between the nut forms. Inclusion of PB, and probably WP, to breakfast may help to moderate glucose concentrations and appetite in obese women.

(Received April 13 2012)

(Revised August 10 2012)

(Accepted August 13 2012)

(Online publication November 05 2012)

Key Words:

  • Peanuts;
  • Glucose;
  • Appetite;
  • Type 2 diabetes mellitus;
  • Glucagon-like peptide 1;
  • Glycaemic index


c1 Corresponding author: Caio E. G. Reis, fax +55 31 38992541, email


  Abbreviations: CCK, cholecystokinin; GLP-1, glucagon-like peptide-1; IAAC, incremental area above the curve; IAUC, incremental AUC; PB, peanut butter; PYY, peptide YY; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus; WP, whole peanuts without skins