Nutrition Research Reviews

Research Article

Potential benefits of satiety to the consumer: scientific considerations

M. M. Hetheringtona1, K. Cunninghama2, L. Dyea1, E. L. Gibsona3, N. T. Gregersena4, J. C. G. Halforda5, C. L. Lawtona1, A. Llucha6, D. J. Melaa7 and H. C. M. Van Trijpa8

a1 Institute of Psychological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

a2 Coca-Cola Europe, Hammersmith, London, UK

a3 University of Roehampton London, London, UK

a4 University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark

a5 University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK

a6 Danone, Centre Daniel Carasso, Palaiseau, France

a7 Unilever R&D Vlaardingen, Vlaardingen, The Netherlands

a8 Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands

Abstract

Foods and dietary patterns that enhance satiety may provide benefit to consumers. The aim of the present review was to describe, consider and evaluate research on potential benefits of enhanced satiety. The proposal that enhanced satiety could only benefit consumers by a direct effect on food intake should be rejected. Instead, it is proposed that there is a variety of routes through which enhanced satiety could (indirectly) benefit dietary control or weight-management goals. The review highlights specific potential benefits of satiety, including: providing appetite control strategies for consumers generally and for those who are highly responsive to food cues; offering pleasure and satisfaction associated with low-energy/healthier versions of foods without feeling ‘deprived’; reducing dysphoric mood associated with hunger especially during energy restriction; and improved compliance with healthy eating or weight-management efforts. There is convincing evidence of short-term satiety benefits, but only probable evidence for longer-term benefits to hunger management, possible evidence of benefits to mood and cognition, inadequate evidence that satiety enhancement can promote weight loss, and no evidence on which consumers would benefit most from satiety enhancement. The appetite-reducing effects of specific foods or diets will be much more subtle than those of pharmaceutical compounds in managing hunger; nevertheless, the experience of pharmacology in producing weight loss via effects on appetite suggests that there is potential benefit of satiety enhancement from foods incorporated into the diet to the consumer.

Key Words:

  • Satiety;
  • Appetite;
  • Hunger;
  • Food patterns;
  • Weight management

Correspondence

c1 Corresponding author: ILSI Europe a.i.s.b.l., Avenue E. Mounier 83, Box 6, B-1200, Brussels, Belgium, fax +32 2 762 00 44, email publications@ilsieurope.be

Footnotes

  Abbreviations: CCK, cholecystokinin; DFF, d-fenfluramine; PYY, peptide tyrosine tyrosine