Behavioral and Brain Sciences

Open Peer Commentary

Limitations of the Dirac formalism as a descriptive framework for cognition

Artem Kaznatcheeva1a2 and Thomas R. Shultza1a2

a1 School of Computer Science, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 1B1, Canada.

a2 Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 1B1, Canada.


We highlight methodological and theoretical limitations of the authors' Dirac formalism and suggest the von Neumann open systems approach as a resolution. The open systems framework is a generalization of classical probability and we hope it will allow cognitive scientists to extend quantum probability from perception, categorization, memory, decision making, and similarity judgments to phenomena in learning and development.

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