British Journal of Nutrition

  • British Journal of Nutrition / Volume 109 / Issue 09 / May 2013, pp 1678-1687
  • Copyright © Danone Research 2012. The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence < http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use. The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114512003601 (About DOI), Published online: 31 August 2012
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Full Papers

Human and Clinical Nutrition

Hydration biomarkers in free-living adults with different levels of habitual fluid consumption

Erica Perriera1 c1, Sébastien Vergnea1, Alexis Kleina1, Marie Poupina1, Pascale Rondeaua1, Laurent Le Bellegoa1, Lawrence E. Armstronga2, Florian Langa3, Jodi Stookeya4 and Ivan Tacka5

a1 Danone Research, RD 128, 91767 Palaiseau, France

a2 Human Performance Laboratory, University of Connecticut, Unit 1110, Storrs, CT 06269-1110, USA

a3 Institute of Physiology, University of Tübingen, Gmelinstrasse 5, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany

a4 Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute, 5700 Martin Luther King Jr Way, Oakland, CA 94609, USA

a5 Department of Clinical Physiology, Toulouse Hospital and University, 31059 Toulouse, France

Abstract

Little is known about the impact of habitual fluid intake on physiology. Specifically, biomarkers of hydration status and body water regulation have not been adequately explored in adults who consume different fluid volumes in everyday conditions, without prolonged exercise or environmental exposure. The purpose of the present study was to compare adults with habitually different fluid intakes with respect to biomarkers implicated in the assessment of hydration status, the regulation of total body water and the risk of kidney pathologies. In the present cross-sectional study, seventy-one adults (thirty-two men, thirty-nine women, age 25–40 years) were classified according to daily fluid intake: thirty-nine low drinkers (LD; ≤ 1·2 litres/d) and thirty-two high drinkers (HD; 2–4 litres/d). During four consecutive days, urinary parameters (first morning urine (FMU) on day 1 and subsequent 24 h urine (24hU) collections), blood parameters, and food and beverage intake were assessed. ANOVA and non-parametric comparisons revealed significant differences between the LD and HD groups in 24hU volume (1·0 (se 0·1) v. 2·4 (se 0·1) litres), specific gravity (median 1·023 v. 1·010), osmolality (767 (se 27) v. 371 (se 33) mOsm/kg) and colour (3·1 (se 0·2) v. 1·8 (se 0·2)). Similarly, in the FMU, the LD group produced a smaller amount of more concentrated urine. Plasma cortisol, creatinine and arginine vasopressin concentrations were significantly higher among the LD. Plasma osmolality was similar between the groups, suggesting physiological adaptations to preserve plasma osmolality despite low fluid intake. The long-term impact of adaptations to preserve plasma osmolality must be examined, particularly in the context of renal health.

(Received March 28 2012)

(Revised July 06 2012)

(Accepted July 14 2012)

(Online publication August 31 2012)

Key Words:

  • Hydration biomarkers;
  • Fluid intake;
  • Urine;
  • Osmolality

Correspondence

c1 Corresponding author: E. Perrier, fax +33 1 69 35 76 93, email erica.perrier@danone.com

Footnotes

  Abbreviations: 24hU, 24 h urine; AVP, arginine vasopressin; CRI, Crystallization Risk Index; FMU, first morning urine; HD, high drinker; LD, low drinker; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; USG, urine specific gravity

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