Fetal and Maternal Medicine Review

Review Article

THE EVIDENCE FOR LATE-ONSET PRE-ECLAMPSIA AS A MATERNOGENIC DISEASE OF PREGNANCY

ENRICO FERRAZZIa1 c1, TAMARA STAMPALIJAa1 and JEAN EDGARD AUPONTa2

a1 Department of Woman, Mother and Neonate, Buzzi Children's Hospital, University Department of Biological and Clinical Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

a2 High Risk Maternity, St. Damien Children Hospital, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

It is our opinion that the evidence from epidemiological observations, clinical trials and biological studies is strong enough to support the view of different origin and phenotypes of pre-eclampsia: placental, which usually occurs (but not exclusively) early in pregnancy and is associated with poor early placentation of different severity with subsequent restriction of foetal growth, at different stages of gestation; and maternogenic, which generally occurs late in pregnancy and it is not related to placental insufficiency and foetal growth restriction.

Correspondence

c1 Enrico Ferrazzi, Department of Woman, Mother and Neonate, Buzzi Children's Hospital, University Department of Biological and Clinical Sciences, University of Milan, Milan, Italy. Email: enrico.ferrazzi@unimi.it