Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine

Review Article

Differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteoblasts and chondrocytes: a focus on adenosine receptors

Shannon H. Carrolla1 and Katya Ravida2a3a4 c1

a1 Department of Biochemistry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA

a2 Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA

a3 Whitaker Cardiovascular Institute, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA

a4 The Evans Center for Interdisciplinary Biomedical Research, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA

Abstract

Skeletogenesis, either during development, post-injury or for maintenance, is a carefully coordinated process reliant on the appropriate differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Some well described, as well as a new regulator of this process (adenosine receptors), are alike in that they signal via cyclic-AMP (cAMP). This review highlights the known contribution of cAMP signalling to mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to osteoblasts and to chondrocytes. Focus has been given to how these regulators influence the commitment of the osteochondroprogenitor to these separate lineages.

Correspondence

c1 Corresponding author: Katya Ravid, Boston University School of Medicine, 700 Albany St Room W602, Boston, MA 02191, USA. E-mail: kravid@bu.edu