a1 Department of Sexual Health, Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health, South Limburg Public Health Service, Geleen, The Netherlands
a2 Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Public Health and Primary Care (CAPHRI), Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), Maastricht, The Netherlands
a3 Department of Infectious Diseases, Northern Limburg Public Health Service, The Netherlands
Since the implementation of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SPn) conjugate vaccination (PCV), non-vaccine types have prevailed in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and an increase in Staphylococcus aureus (SA) burden has been suggested. Here, we assess the epidemiology of SA and SPn nasal carriage in 620 children at day-care centres; 141 of these children had received 1–4 PCV7 doses. A higher vaccine dosage was associated with non-vaccine-type SPn carriage. Of all SPn isolates, 45% were PCV7 types, 1% were additional PCV10 types and 22% were the three additional PCV13 types. SA carriage was inversely associated with vaccine-type SPn carriage. SPn serotype 19A showed higher SA co-carriage rates compared to other SPn serotypes. PCV7 implementation does not prevent children from being part of the IPD-related SPn transmission chain. These results contribute to the monitoring of SA- and SPn-related disease and add to the debate on the current national vaccination policy that recently included a change from PCV7 to PCV10.
(Received March 13 2012)
(Revised April 26 2012)
(Accepted May 14 2012)
(Online publication June 12 2012)
c1 Author for correspondence: Dr N. H. T. M. Dukers-Muijrers, Department of Sexual Health, Infectious Diseases and Environmental Health, South Limburg Public Health Service, P.O. Box 2022, 6160 HA Geleen, The Netherlands. (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org)
Part of this study was also presented at ECCMID 2008, Barcelona, Spain and at ESCAIDE 2010, Lisbon, Portugal.