Microscopy and Microanalysis

Special Section: Cathodoluminescence

Three-Dimensional Electron Energy Deposition Modeling of Cathodoluminescence Emission near Threading Dislocations in GaN and Electron-Beam Lithography Exposure Parameters for a PMMA Resist

Hendrix Demersa1, Nicolas Poirier-Demersa1, Matthew R. Phillipsa2, Niels de Jongea3 p1 and Dominique Drouina1 c1

a1 Universite de Sherbrooke, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1, Canada

a2 University of Technology, Microstructural Analysis Unit, Faculty of Science, Sydney, NSW 2007, Australia

a3 Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Nashville, TN 37232-0615, USA


The Monte Carlo software CASINO has been expanded with new modules for the simulation of complex beam scanning patterns, for the simulation of cathodoluminescence (CL), and for the calculation of electron energy deposition in subregions of a three-dimensional (3D) volume. Two examples are presented of the application of these new capabilities of CASINO. First, the CL emission near threading dislocations in gallium nitride (GaN) was modeled. The CL emission simulation of threading dislocations in GaN demonstrated that a better signal-to-noise ratio was obtained with lower incident electron energy than with higher energy. Second, the capability to simulate the distribution of the deposited energy in 3D was used to determine exposure parameters for polymethylmethacrylate resist using electron-beam lithography (EBL). The energy deposition dose in the resist was compared for two different multibeam EBL schemes by changing the incident electron energy.

(Received March 15 2012)

(Accepted September 09 2012)

Key words

  • cathodoluminescence (CL);
  • electron-beam lithography;
  • energy deposition;
  • Monte Carlo simulations;
  • resist;
  • threading dislocation;
  • three-dimensional (3D)


c1 Corresponding author. E-mail: Dominique.Drouin@USherbrooke.ca

p1 Current address: INM Leibniz-Institute for New Materials, Campus D2 2, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany