British Journal of Nutrition

Full Papers

Behaviour, Appetite and Obesity

Differential effects of dairy snacks on appetite, but not overall energy intake

Anestis Dougkasa1a2, Anne M. Minihanea3, D. Ian Givensa2, Christopher K. Reynoldsa2 and Parveen Yaqooba1 c1

a1 Hugh Sinclair Human Nutrition Group, Food and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AP, UK

a2 Faculty of Life Sciences, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6AR, UK

a3 Department of Nutrition, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK


Dietary regulation of appetite may contribute to the prevention and management of excess body weight. The present study examined the effect of consumption of individual dairy products as snacks on appetite and subsequent ad libitum lunch energy intake. In a randomised cross-over trial, forty overweight men (age 32 (sd 9) years; BMI 27 (sd 2) kg/m2) attended four sessions 1 week apart and received three isoenergetic (841 kJ) and isovolumetric (410 ml) servings of dairy snacks or water (control) 120 min after breakfast. Appetite profile was determined throughout the morning and ad libitum energy intake was assessed 90 min after the intake of snacks. Concentrations of amino acids, glucose, insulin, ghrelin and peptide tyrosine tyrosine were measured at baseline (0 min) and 80 min after the intake of snacks. Although the results showed that yogurt had the greatest suppressive effect on appetite, this could be confounded by the poor sensory ratings of yogurt. Hunger rating was 8, 10 and 24 % (P < 0·001) lower after the intake of yogurt than cheese, milk and water, respectively. Energy intake was 11, 9 and 12 % (P < 0·02) lower after the intake of yogurt, cheese and milk, respectively, compared with water (4312 (se 226) kJ). Although there was no difference in the postprandial responses of hormones, alanine and isoleucine concentrations were higher after the intake of yogurt than cheese and milk (P < 0·05). In conclusion, all dairy snacks reduced appetite and lunch intake compared with water. Yogurt had the greatest effect on suppressing subjective appetite ratings, but did not affect subsequent food intake compared with milk or cheese.

(Received June 13 2011)

(Revised January 16 2012)

(Accepted January 17 2012)

(Online publication March 02 2012)

Key Words:

  • Appetite;
  • Dairy products;
  • Amino acids;
  • Ghrelin;
  • Peptide tyrosine tyrosine


c1 Corresponding author: Professor P. Yaqoob, fax +44 118 378 7708, email


  Abbreviations: PYY, peptide tyrosine tyrosine; TFEQ, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire; VAS, visual analogue scale