British Journal of Nutrition

Full Papers

Human and Clinical Nutrition

Vitamin D3 and the risk of CVD in overweight and obese women: a randomised controlled trial

Amin Salehpoura1, Farzad Shidfara1 c1, Farhad Hosseinpanaha2, Mohammadreza Vafaa1, Maryam Razaghia1, Anahita Hoshiarrada3 and Mahmoodreza Goharia4

a1 Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, No. 52, Alvand Street, Arjantin Square, Tehran, Iran

a2 Obesity Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Floor 4th, Number 24, Parvaneh Street, Yemen Street, Chamran Exp, Tehran, Iran

a3 National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, No. 42, Arghavan Street, Farahzadi Boulevard, Shahrak-e Gharb, Tehran, Iran

a4 Department of Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, No. 52, Alvand Street, Arjantin Square, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Evidence indicates that vitamin D deficiency contributes to CVD. We investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors in women. Healthy premenopausal overweight and obese women (n 77; mean age 38 (sd 8·1) years) were randomly allocated to the vitamin D (25 μg/d as cholecalciferol) or the placebo group in a double-blind manner for 12 weeks. Blood pressure, serum lipoproteins, apolipoproteins and anthropometric parameters were recorded. Dietary intake was recorded using 24 h food recall and FFQ. Physical activity was assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mean total cholesterol concentrations increased in the vitamin D group (0·08 (sd 0·56) mmol/l) but declined in the placebo group (0·47 (sd 0·58) mmol/l), and a significant effect was observed (P ≤ 0·001). In the vitamin D group, mean HDL-cholesterol concentration increased, whereas it decreased in the placebo group (0·07 (sd 0·2) v. − 0·03 (sd 0·2) mmol/l; P = 0·037). Mean apoA-I concentration increased in the vitamin D group, although it decreased in the placebo group (0·04 (sd 0·39) v. − 0·25 (sd 0·2) g/l; P ≤ 0·001). Mean LDL-cholesterol:apoB-100 ratio augmented in the vitamin D group, while this ratio declined in the placebo group (0·11 (sd 0·6) v. − 0·19 (sd 0·3); P = 0·014). Body fat mass was significantly decreased in the vitamin D group more than the placebo group ( − 2·7 (sd 2) v. − 0·4 (sd 2) kg; P ≤ 0·001). The findings showed that supplementation with vitamin D3 can significantly improve HDL-cholesterol, apoA-I concentrations and LDL-cholesterol:apoB-100 ratio, which remained significant in the multivariate model including anthropometric, dietary and physical activity measures.

(Received August 18 2011)

(Revised December 14 2011)

(Accepted January 05 2012)

(Online publication February 09 2012)

Key Words:

  • Vitamin D;
  • CVD;
  • Obesity

Correspondence:

c1 Corresponding author: Dr F. Shidfar, fax +98 21 88779487, email f-shidfar@tums.ac.ir

Footnotes

  Abbreviations: 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D; HR, hazard ratio; PTH, parathyroid hormone

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