Journal of Fluid Mechanics


A throttling mechanism sustaining a hole tone feedback system at very low Mach numbers

K. Matsuuraa1 c1 and M. Nakanoa2

a1 Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime, 790-8577, Japan

a2 Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi, 980-8577, Japan


This study investigates the sound produced when a jet, issued from a circular nozzle or hole in a plate, goes through a similar hole in a second plate. The sound, known as a hole tone, is encountered in many practical engineering situations. Direct computations of a hole tone feedback system were conducted. The mean velocity of the air jet was 10 m s−1. The nozzle and the end plate hole both had a diameter of 51 mm, and the impingement length between the nozzle and the end plate was 50 mm. The computational results agreed well with past experimental data in terms of qualitative vortical structures, the relationship between the most dominant hole tone peak frequency and the jet speed, and downstream growth of the mean jet profiles. Based on the computational results, the shear-layer impingement on the hole edge, the resulting propagation of pressure waves and the associated vortical structures are discussed. To extract dominant unsteady behaviours of the hole tone phenomena, a snapshot proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis of pressure fluctuation fields was conducted. It was found that the pressure fluctuation fields and the time variation of mass flows through the end plate hole were dominantly expressed by the first and second POD modes, respectively. Integrating the computational results, an axisymmetric throttling mechanism linking mass flow rates through the hole, vortex impingement and global pressure propagation, is proposed.

(Received October 06 2011)

(Reviewed May 22 2012)

(Accepted July 21 2012)

(Online publication September 03 2012)

Key Words:

  • absolute/convective instability;
  • aeroacoustics;
  • jets


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