Bulletin of Entomological Research

Review Article

Biological control of sciarid and phorid pests of mushroom with predatory mites from the genus Hypoaspis (Acari: Hypoaspidae) and the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema feltiae

S. Jessa1a2 c1 and J.F.W. Binghama1

a1 Applied Plant Science Division, Department of Agriculture and Rural Development for Northern Ireland, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, UK

a2 Department of Applied Plant Science, Queen's University of Belfast, Newforge Lane, Belfast BT9 5PX, UK


In small-scale experiments, the predatory mites, Hypoaspis aculeifer (Canestrini) and H. miles Berlese, applied at 700 mites m−2, and the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) applied at 3 × 10−6 nematodes m−2 controlled sciarids and phorids in mushroom compost and casing substrates. For both mite species, earliest application to the growing substrate following sciarid infestation reduced sciarid emergence. In contrast, later application of each biological control agent provided more effective control of phorid emergence. The behaviour of adult mites suggested that H. aculeifer were more positively geotactic than H. miles although both species could penetrate compost and casing substrates to a depth of 2–12 cm. A majority of S. feltiae nematodes resided at a depth of 2–4 cm in both substrate types. Independent application of H. aculeifer provided more comprehensive control of sciarids and phorids than the other biological agents studied, owing to its better dispersal within compost and casing, and ability to attack larvae of differing ages.

(Accepted November 17 2004)


c1 *Fax: 02890 255003 E-mail: stephen.jess@dardni.gov.uk