a1 Department of Aeronautics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
a2 CD-adapco, 200 Shepherds Bush Road, London W6 7NL, UK
The objective of this numerical study is to increase the base pressure on a backward-facing step via linear feedback control, to be ultimately translated to a drag reduction on a blunt-based bluff body. Two backward-facing step cases are simulated: a laminar two-dimensional (2D) flow at a Reynolds number of , and a turbulent three-dimensional (3D) flow at using large-eddy simulation. The control is effected by a full-span slot jet with zero-net-mass-flux, and two jet locations are examined. Linear system identification is performed to characterize the flow response to actuation, used to synthesize a control law. The control strategy is based on the premise that an attenuation of the instantaneous pressure fluctuations on the base of the step should lead to an increase in the time-averaged base pressure. Open-loop harmonic forcing is examined within a broad frequency range for both the 2D and 3D flows, which are found to respond differently to actuation. The controllers based on disturbance attenuation lead to sensible increases in base pressure (up to 70 % in 2D and 20 % in 3D) with higher efficiency than the best results achieved in open-loop. The results support the conjecture about the link between the base pressure fluctuations and mean, although it is shown that such a black-box model approach is not suitable for optimization without further physical insight.
(Received October 03 2011)
(Reviewed March 21 2012)
(Accepted May 23 2012)
(Online publication July 03 2012)