Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society

Research Articles

Increased Capacity to Delay Reward in Anorexia Nervosa

Joanna E. Steinglassa1 c1, Bernd Fignera2a3, Staci Berkowitza4, H. Blair Simpsona1, Elke U. Webera2a5 and B. Timothy Walsha1

a1 Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University Medical Center/New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, New York

a2 Center for Decision Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York

a3 Department of Psychology, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands

a4 Department of Psychology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

a5 Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, New York, New York

Abstract

Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) are often characterized as possessing excessive self-control and are unusual in their ability to reduce or avoid the consumption of palatable foods. This behavior promotes potentially life-threatening weight loss and suggests disturbances in reward processing. We studied whether individuals with AN showed evidence of increased self-control by examining the tendency to delay receipt of a monetary, non-food related, reward. Underweight AN (n = 36) and healthy controls (HC, n = 28) completed a monetary intertemporal choice task measuring delay discounting factor. Individuals with AN reduced the value of a monetary reward over time significantly less than HC (F[1,61] = 5.03; p = 0.029). Secondary analyses indicated that the restricting subtype of AN, in particular, showed significantly less discounting than HC (F[1,46] = 8.3; p = 0.006). These findings indicate that some individuals with AN show less temporal discounting than HC, suggestive of enhanced self-control that is not limited to food consumption. This is in contrast to other psychiatric disorders, for example, substance abuse, which are characterized by greater discounting. Though preliminary, these findings suggest that excessive self-control may contribute to pathological processes and individuals with AN may have neuropsychological characteristics that enhance their ability to delay reward and thereby may help to maintain persistent food restriction. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1–8)

(Received December 07 2011)

(Revised March 07 2012)

(Accepted March 07 2012)

Correspondence:

c1 Correspondence and reprint requests to: Joanna Steinglass,1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 98, New York, NY 10032. E-mail: js1124@columbia.edu