a1 Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada
a2 Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Minnesota, 1971 Commonwealth Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA
There is nothing new except that which is forgotten … Marie Antoinette
Arguably, the first microbiome study, conducted by Antonie van Leewenhoek with his primitive microscopes, was reported in 1673. For much of the next 300 years, microbiologists worked hard to isolate and study organisms in pure culture. It has only been in the past 30 years that interest has arisen in the study of more complex microbial systems, requiring more powerful methodologies and new approaches.
(Received May 23 2012)
(Accepted May 24 2012)