a1 ADHD Outpatient Program–Adult Division, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
a2 Post-Graduate Program in Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
a3 Post-Graduate Program in Genetics and Molecular Biology, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil
Introduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) are frequently co-occurring disorders in children and adolescents. However, their clinical status among adults is still under discussion. This study analyzes how the current clinical presentation of adult ADHD might be influenced by a lifetime history of CD and ODD.
Methods We compared three groups of patients: ADHD without history of CD/ODD (n = 178), ADHD + history of ODD (n = 184), and ADHD + history of CD (n = 96).
Results A history of CD (and to a lower extent ODD) is associated with a more severe and externalizing profile.
Conclusion Past CD and ODD entail a significant negative mental health impact on persistent ADHD, reinforcing the importance of actively assessing the developmental history of adult ADHD patients.
(Received February 04 2012)
(Accepted February 29 2012)
(Online publication May 04 2012)
This study was supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (FAPERGS-PRONEX), Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (FIPE-HCPA), and FAPERGS/DECIT/SCTIE/MS/PPSUS.